Showing posts from August, 2015

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q11

11. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire It is a questionnaire to assess the personality traits of a person. It was devised by the psychologists Hans Jürgen Eysenck and his wife Sybil B. G. Eysenck.

The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire is a self-assessment test for administration to normal populations. It assesses the three primary Eysenckian traits of extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and Psychoticism (P). In addition the test contains a Lie Scale (L).

1. High E scorer is “sociable, likes parties, has many friends, needs to have people to talk to, and does not like reading or studying by himself.”
2. High N scorer is “an anxious, worrying individual, moody and frequently depressed. He is likely to sleep badly, and to suffer from psychosomatic disorders.”
3. High P scorer is “tough-minded and non-comformist, likely to be aggressive, cold, and impersonal. He may also be prone to Machiavellianism and antisocial behavior.”

The EPQ-R (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991) contains 100 items to mea…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q10

10. Factor analysis Factor analysis is a method of analyzing a set of correlations to discover which variables in the set are correlated with each other but are largely independent of the other variables. Thus, factors represent the underlying processes that hold together each subset of correlations.

Factor analysis can account for a large number of variables with a smaller number of more basic dimensions. These more basic dimensions can be called traits, that is, factors that represent a cluster of closely related variables. Ex: we may find high positive inter-correlations among test scores in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. We have now identified a cluster of scores that we might call Factor M, representing mathematical ability.

Steps in factor analysis
· Step 1: Selecting and Measuring a set of variables in a given domain
· Step 2: Data screening in order to prepare the correlation matrix
· Step 3: Factor Extraction
· Step 4: Factor Rotation to increase interpretability

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q9

9. Conscientiousness Conscientiousness is one of the factors of the Big Five personality theory. It describes people who are ordered, controlled, organized, ambitious, achievement focused, and self-disciplined. In general, people who score high on C are hardworking, conscientious, punctual, and persevering. In contrast, people who score low on conscientiousness tend to be disorganized, negligent, lazy, and aimless and are likely to give up when a project becomes difficult.

Conscientious children, for instance, get their homework done on time and keep their rooms neat. They set goals and fulfill them, and they generally don’t take many risks. In the California study, persons high in this characteristic have been fully 30 percent less likely to die in any given year than persons low in this trait.

However, recent research has indicated some positive effects of low conscientiousness. Research has demonstrated that lack of conscientiousness is associated with innovation. Defined by terms…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q8

8. Analyse Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. According to Maslow, human beings have two basic sets of needs that are rooted in their biology: deficiency (or basic) needs, and growth (or meta) needs.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
Posted by Psychology Learners on Sunday, 19 July 2015

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q7

7. Evaluate Karen Horney’s theory of self. Karen Horney placed emphasis on the inner conflicts that both normal and neurotic individuals experience. Intra-psychic processes originate from interpersonal experiences; but as they become part of a person’s belief system, they develop a life of their own—an existence separate from the interpersonal conflicts that gave them life.

There are two important intra-psychic conflicts:
1. Idealized self-image: an attempt to solve conflicts by painting a godlike picture of oneself.
2. Self-hatred: an interrelated yet equally irrational and powerful tendency to despise one’s real self.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q6

6. Discuss the case study method. A case study (or case history) consists of an intensive, detailed description and analysis of a particular individual, group, or event. Such studies are frequently used in clinical and medical settings to provide descriptions and explanations of a person’s actions and experiences, as well as a prescription for the treatment of the individual’s problems (Runyan, 1982, p. 443). Information may be obtained by means of careful observation, interviews, psychological tests, or archival records.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q5

5. Examine the strengths and weaknesses of self-report tests. A self-report method is a data collection technique used in personality assessment where the information about the subject is provided by the subject itself. There are three types of self-report tests: Direct self-ratings, Indirect self-reports and Open-ended self-descriptions.

Self-reports are the most common assessment procedures for collecting data in psychology and psychological assessment. They can be obtained through questionnaires, inventories, or scales containing set of relevant verbal statements and a variety of response formats (true or false options, checklists, scaled responses, etc.). MMPI-2 and 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire are couple of famous self-Report Inventories.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q4

4. Describe neuro-psychological basis of trait and types. Human behaviors and experiences are generated by biological processes, primarily within the brain. The regularities in these behaviors and experiences that constitute personality are, therefore, associated with regularities in the biological functions of the brain. The neuro-psychological base of various personality theories is discussed below:

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q3

3. Elucidate Allport’s development of selfhood. Whether motivational or stylistic, some personal dispositions are close to the core of personality, whereas others are more on the periphery. Those that are at the center of personality are experienced by the person as being an important part of self. They are characteristics that an individual refers to in such terms as “That is me” or “This is mine.” All characteristics that are “peculiarly mine” belong to the proprium (Allport, 1955).

The major concepts of Allport’s trait theory revolve around the different kinds of traits that are contained in the proprium, and how they, develop continuously from a person’s infancy to death and moves through a series of stages as discussed below.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q2

2. Discuss various projective techniques in assessment of personality. According to Pervin (1975), a projective technique ‘‘is an instrument that is considered especially sensitive to covert or unconscious aspects of behavior, permits or encourages a wide variety of subject responses, is highly multidimensional, and evokes unusually rich or profuse response data with a minimum of subject awareness concerning the purpose of the test’’ (p. 33).

In Projective techniques subjects are asked to interpret or fill in visual stimuli, complete sentences, or report what associations particular words bring to mind. Because of the leeway provided by the tests, subjects project their own personalities onto the stimulus, often revealing personal conflicts, motivations, coping styles, and other characteristics.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC003 >> Q1

1. Define personality. Discuss the psychological and environmental determinants of personality development. The term ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’ which means a mask. Some definitions of the term are as follows:

K. Young: “Personality is a …. patterned body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual, as these are organised externally into roles and statuses, and as they relate internally to motivation, goals, and various aspects of selfhood.”
G. W. Allport: It is “a person’s pattern of habits, attitudes, and traits which determine his adjustment to his environment.”

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q18

18. Retirement and leisure
Retirement is the phase of one’s life when the lifelong job of earning a living, raising a family, and overcoming the day-to-day obstacles that affect one's income, status, and career comes to an end. The fundamental problem of retired people is essentially the substitution of these with a new set of personal values and new kinds of activity.

Within post-retirement activities, leisure activities (e.g., Dorfman & Douglas, 2005; Reeves & Darville, 1994) are amongst the most beneficial to retirees’ psychological well-being. Further, when retirees work for generative reasons (i.e., working for teaching and sharing knowledge with the younger generation), they are more likely to experience improved psychological well-being (Dendinger, Adams, & Jacobson, 2005).

Interest in leisure activities such as hobbies and volunteer activities should be developed, that can be pursued earnestly post-retirement. This has been shown to have a positive impact on t…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q17

17. Sensori-motor Stage The sensorimotor stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. In this stage, infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (such as seeing and hearing) with physical, motoric actions—hence the term “sensorimotor.” At the beginning of this stage, newborns have little more than reflexive patterns with which to work. At the end of the sensorimotor stage, 2-year-olds can produce complex sensorimotor patterns and use primitive symbols.

By the end of the sensorimotor period, children understand that objects are both separate from the self and permanent. Object permanence is the understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or touched.

Piaget divided the sensorimotor stage into six sub-stages:

Simple reflexes (Birth - 1 month): Coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviorsFirst habits and primary circular reactions (1- 4 months): Coordination of sensation and tw…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q16

16. Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery
The Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery (WJ-PEB), originally published in 1977, measured cognitive abilities, scholastic aptitudes, academic achievement and scholastic and non-scholastic interests. It is an individually-administered, wide-age range, comprehensive set of standardized tests designed to identify learning disabilities. The Woodcock-Johnson® Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R®), was published in 1989.

WJ III is the current version. It was normed from age 19mos to 100yrs+ and from K to gr 18.0. It consists of 42 tests divided into 2 parts: Tests of Cognitive Ability and Tests of Achievement. There are 8 timed tasks and 11 taped tasks.

It is based on the Carroll-Horn-Cattell (CHC) Model. It provides a measure of general intellectual ability (g). It includes a Brief Intellectual Ability score. It provides a greater breadth of coverage of cognitive factors. It uses 2-3 tests that clearly measure different narrow as…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q15

15. Exceptional children
Children exhibit differences from one another in terms of learning abilities. The differences among most children are relatively small, enabling these children to benefit from the general education program. The learning abilities of some children, however—those called exceptional children—differ from the norm (either below or above) so much that they require an individualized program of special education and related services to fully benefit from education. Modifications in curriculum and instruction are necessary to help them fulfill their potential. Thus, exceptional children is an inclusive term that refers to children with learning and/or behavior problems, children with physical disabilities or sensory impairments, and children who are intellectually gifted or have a special talent.

At risk children are ones who, although not currently identified as having a disability, are considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing one.

Exceptional chi…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q14

14. Moratorium Eriksonian researcher James Marcia (1980, 1994) proposes that Erikson’s theory of identity development contains four statuses of identity, or ways of resolving the identity crisis: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement.

The search for an identity during adolescence is aided by a psychosocial moratorium, Erikson’s term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy. Identity moratorium is the status of individuals who are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined. They often begin to question their ideas and beliefs.

During this period, society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and able to try out different identities. Adolescents search their culture’s identity files, experimenting with different roles and personalities. They may want to pursue one career one month (say lawyer) and another career next month (say doctor, actor, or astronau…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q13

13. Egocentrism in adolescence
Adolescent egocentrism is a term that David Elkind used to describe the phenomenon of adolescents' inability to distinguish between their perception of what others think about them and what people actually think in reality. His theory on adolescent egocentrism is drawn from Piaget’s theory on cognitive developmental stages, which argues that formal operations enable adolescents to construct imaginary situations and abstract thinking. Accordingly, adolescents are able to conceptualize their own thoughts and conceive of other people’s.

However, Elkind pointed out that adolescents tend to focus mostly on their own perceptions – especially on their behaviors and appearance - because of the “physiological metamorphosis” they experience during this period. This leads to adolescents’ belief that other people are as attentive to their behaviors and appearance as they are of themselves. According to Elkind, adolescent egocentrism results in two consequential…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q12

12. Ego identity Vs Despair
Integrity versus despair is the eighth and final stage of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. It occurs during late adulthood - age 65 through the end of life. During this period of time, we tend to slow down our productivity, and explore life as a retired person and come away with either a sense of fulfillment from a life well lived or a sense of regret and despair over a life misspent.

Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back at life with a sense of closure and completeness, and accept death without fear.

Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop regrets and consequently, feelings…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q11

11. Smiling
Smiling is critical as a means of developing a new social skill and is a key social signal (Campos, 2009). Two types of smiling can be distinguished in infants:
- Reflexive smile: A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep.
- Social smile: A smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of the young infant. Social smiling occurs as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age in response to a caregiver’s voice (Campos, 2005).

Daniel Messinger (2008) described the developmental course of infant smiling:
- 2-6 months: infants’ social smiling increases considerably, both in self-initiated smiles and smiles in response to others’ smiles
- 6-12 months: smiles that couple the Duchenne marker (eye constriction) and mouth opening occur during highly enjoyable interactions and play with parents
- Second year: smiling continues to occur in positive circumstances with parents.…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q10

10. Time lag method The time lag design has been defined by Schaie (1965) as examining "whether there are differences in a give characteristic for samples of equal age but drawn from different cohorts measured at different times" (p. 95). In other words, only one age is studied but across different cohorts at different times.

The time lag design could also be defined by Cook and Campbell (1979), as a separate sample design. As such, it also confounded by differences in generations or cohorts. According to Schaie (1970), the time lag method is designed to measure cultural change but confounds environmental treatments or normative history-graded influences with differences between cohorts.

In simple words, this research method involves the comparison of people that are the same age, but from different cohorts. An example of this would be to analyze differences from 20 year olds that lived in the 70s, 80s and 90s. Strengths of this method are that it controls for cohort differ…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q9

9. Period of Zygote After a female egg is fertilized, the resulting one-celled organism becomes known as a zygote. Once this has occurred, the zygote begins a two-week period of rapid cell division and will eventually become an embryo.

The zygote divides through a process known as mitosis, in which each cell doubles by dividing into two cells. This two-week stage is known as the germinal period of development and covers the time of conception to the implantation of the embryo in the uterus.

In most cases, each male and female sex cell contain 23 chromosomes. When these two haploid cells join, they form a single diploid cell that contains a total of 46 chromosomes. The zygote begins a journey down the fallopian tube to the uterus where it must implant in the lining in order to obtain the nourishment it needs to grow and survive.

The period of the zygote is the first stage of the prenatal period. And, it lasts for about four days. Around the fifth day, the mass of cells becomes known a…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q8

8. Analyse Levinson’s theory and its features in adulthood development. The Stage-Crisis View is a theory of adult development that was established by Daniel Levinson in his 1978 publication entitled "The Seasons of a Man's Life."

According to his theory, various developmental tasks must be mastered as one progresses through each era; pre-adulthood, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood. Crises are also experienced throughout the lifecycle and occur when one become burdened by either internal or external factors, such as during the midlife crisis that occurs during the midlife transition from early adulthood to middle adulthood.

At the center of Levinson's theory is the life structure.  This is an underlying pattern of an individual's life at any given point in time.  It is shaped mainly by their social and physical environment, and involves family and work.  Other variables such as religion, race, and status are often important as well.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q7

7. Describe motor development that takes place during middle childhood. Motor development refers to the development of motor skills in children – the ability to co-ordinate muscles for different types of movements. Motor skills are of two types – Gross motor skills and Fine motor skills. We briefly look at what they are and their development during middle childhood.

Gross motor skills Gross motor skills are skills that involve large-muscle activities, such as moving one’s arms and walking.

During middle and late childhood, children’s motor development becomes much smoother and more coordinated than it was in early childhood. Running, swimming, and skating are few of the many physical skills elementary school children can master. When mastered, these physical skills are a source of great pleasure and a sense of accomplishment. A study of 9-year-olds revealed that those who were more physically fit had a better mastery of motor skills (Haga, 2008).

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q6

6. Discuss the main components of language development in children. The language hierarchy involves five systems of rules – phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. (Morphology and Semantics together form Grammar) Therefore, these form the main components of language development in children and are discussed in detail below:
1. Phonology and Morphology During the preschool years, most children gradually become more sensitive to the sounds of spoken words and become increasingly capable of producing all the sounds of their language (National Research Council, 1999). By the time, children are 3 years of age, they can produce all the vowel sounds and most of the consonant sounds (Menn & Stoel-Gammon, 2009).

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q5

5. How can environmental influences affect the development of infant? An infant or toddler has a time-limited period during which her experiences will affect her brain function and development. Nutrition, talking, singing, playing and protection from stress or the dangers of toxins and drugs are important requirements for healthy brain development in infants and toddlers. The environmental influences affecting development of an infant are listed below:
· Socio-economic status of the family: It has an indirect impact on development as it impacts most of the other factors discussed below. Ex: nutrition, exposure to toxins, etc.
· Child’s nutrition: Feeding of baby appropriately during the first year of life is extremely important, as more growth occurs during your baby's first year than any other time in her life. Starting good eating habits at this early stage will help set healthful eating patterns for life.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q4

4. What do you understand by growth and development? Growth and development are often used as synonymous terms. But growth is more on the physical aspect while development is more on the mental aspect. These two processes are highly correlated with each other. If a child has good physical health, most likely the child also has above average mental capacity. With good physical growth, a child can be more sociable with other people, too. Both are important characteristics of a living organism and go on simultaneously.

· Growth is “the physical change that a particular individual undergoes.”

· Development is “the overall growth of humans throughout their lifespan.” Development includes the understanding of how and why people change in terms of physical growth, intellectual, emotional, social, and other aspects of human growth.

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q3

3. Discuss the ageing issues and challenges in adulthood. Ageing is the organic process of growing older and showing the affects of increasing age. In the present day society, with increasing health consciousness, both men and women want to be physically and mentally fit. With advancing age certain inevitable and universal changes such as chemical changes in cells or gradual loss of adaptive reserve capacity take place. There are also certain cognitive changes taking place from middle adulthood onwards.

These changes are slow and gradual. Normally people see aging as a period of physical and mental health decline. These changes are mainly physical and cognitive in nature and may result in various issues and challenges for a person as discussed below:

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q2

2. Elucidate the cognitive changes during middle adulthood. During middle adulthood, cognition begins to stabilize, reaching a peak around the age of 35. The various components of the human cognitive structure that undergoes changes during middle adulthood includes – intelligence (fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence and practical intelligence), memory (short term and long term memory) and creativity. These are discussed in detail below:
1. Intelligence · Instead of declining sharply with age, many intellectual abilities seem to remain quite stable across the entire life span. In fact, they show relatively little change until persons are well into their sixties, seventies, or beyond. Some abilities even seem to increase.
· Crystallized intelligence – the ability to draw on previously learned information as a basis for making decisions or solving problems - grows steadily throughout middle adulthood and even after that. (e.g., Lerner, 1990; Willis & Nesselroade, 1990).

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC002 >> Q1

1. Examine Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s theories of moral development during school years. Moral development refers to the changes in the ability to reason about what is right and what is wrong in a given situation (e.g., Carlo et al., 1996; Carpendale & Krebs, 1995). Lawrence Kohlberg was a developmental psychologist who, influenced by Piaget and others, outlined a theory of the development of moral thinking through looking at how people of various ages responded to stories about people caught up in moral dilemmas. Kohlberg and Piaget’s theories are discussed below:

Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development Interest in how children think about moral issues was stimulated by Piaget (1932), who extensively observed and interviewed children from the ages of 4 through 12. Piaget watched children play marbles to learn how they used and thought about the game’s rules. He also asked children about ethical issues—theft, lies, punishment, and justice, for example. Piaget concluded that children go…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q18

18. Simultaneous processing Simultaneous processing is one of the components of Cognition which, as per PASS theory of intelligence, is organized in three systems and four processes.

It is the process of combining discrete and unconnected stimuli into a single group or whole to assist in comprehension and interpretation. It involves the comprehension of the relationships of and between separate entities and its relation or position to the whole. The integration of distinct yet interrelated stimuli can also facilitate the ability to uncover underlying patterns in verbal and nonverbal information.

Simultaneous processing is necessary for language comprehension, as in:  “Who is the person in the following statement:  My mother’s father was his only son (Naglieri & Das, 1997)?” Simultaneous processing can be helpful to accomplish tasks where the focus is on solving problems where the objective of the task demands conceptualization of parts into a cohesive whole. Spatial characterist…

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q17

17. Working memory Short-term memory is a memory system that holds a limited amount of information for brief periods of time, usually thirty seconds or less. This is the memory system you use when you look up a phone number and dial it.

Many experts on memory view it as a kind of workbench for consciousness. That’s why another term for short-term memory is working memory.

How short-term memory works.
A growing body of evidence indicates that short-term memory consists of two basic components: a phonological store of representations of words, reflecting how they sound, and a rehearsal mechanism that refreshes the contents of the phonological store through repetition of these words (Baddeley, 1992).

How much can short-term memory hold? 
The answer turns out to be something like seven to nine separate pieces of information. By the process of chunking, short-term memory can hold larger amount of information, even though it can retain only seven to nine separate items at once.

How long does …