Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC004 >> Q6

6. Discuss in brief: (i) Stereotypes (ii) Quasi Experiment (iii) Control Group and experimental group (iv) Social Identity (v) Types of Prejudice

Stereotypes 

Stereotypes are considered the cognitive component of attitudes toward a social group—specifically, beliefs about what a particular group is like and what the groups’ members are like. Stereotypes can include more than just traits; physical appearance, abilities, and behaviors are all common components of stereotypic expectancies (Biernat & Thompson, 2002; Deaux & LaFrance, 1998; Zhang, Schmader, & Forbes, 2009).

The traits thought to distinguish between one group and another can be either positive or negative, they can be accurate or inaccurate, and may be either agreed with or rejected by members of the stereotyped group.

Source: Psychology, Robert Baron (Click for eBook)



Quasi Experiment 

Quasi-experiments are studies which lack the control of a true experiment because one or more of its requirements cannot be met, ex: deliberate use of an independent variable or random assignment of subjects to different groups.

Studies of the effects of drugs on pregnant women are based on data about women who have already been pregnant and either taken or not taken drugs. Researcher can’t control assignment of subjects or choices presented to them, but can measure differences between the two populations and obtain significant findings. Such studies provide a basis for investigations that would otherwise be impossible.

Source: Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology

Control Group and experimental group

In experimental research, often participants are allocated truly randomly to an experimental group and a control group, enabling unmeasured or unknown variables to be taken into account and strengthening claims for internal validity.

The participants in experimental group are exposed to the independent variable such as a new drug, whereas, those in control group are not.

Example: Participants in experimental condition (the positive mood condition) perform some task and receive positive feedback on their work (i.e, praise). Those in the control condition would receive neutral feedback—comments designed to have no effect on the participants’ current moods.

Sources:
Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Bridget Somekh and Cathy Lewin (Click for eBook)
Psychology, Robert Baron (Click for eBook)

Social Identity

According to social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986), we can perceive ourselves differently at any given moment in time, depending on where we are on the personal-versus-social identity continuum.

At the personal end of this continuum, we think of ourselves primarily as individuals. At the social end, we think of ourselves as members of specific social groups. We do not experience all aspects of our self-concept simultaneously; where we place ourselves on this continuum at any given moment will influence how we think about ourselves.

Source: Psychology, Robert Baron (Click for eBook)

Types of Prejudice

The different types of prejudice are:

  1. Gender Prejudice: The attitude that all members of a particular gender -- all women, all girls, all men, all boys -- are a certain type of person. 
  2. Racial/Ethnic/Religious/Caste Minority Prejudice: When person of certain race, ethnicity, religion or caste is believed to be inferior/superior to another.
  3. Age Prejudice/Ageism: When person below/above a certain age is considered to be inferior/superior.
  4. Class Prejudice/Classism: Belief or attitude that people of a certain economic class are inferior/superior. 
  5. Disability Prejudice/Ableism: The belief that those with physical or mental disabilities or handicaps are inferior to able-bodied people. 
* * *

Source: http://www.ehow.com/list_7467177_different-types-prejudice.html

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MPC001: Cognitive Psychology
MPC002: LifeSpan Psychology
MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology

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