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IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q10

Q10. Mismatched validity
If the tests are not well-matched to the task, individual, and situation at hand, we will have a case of mismatched validity.

Some tests are useful in diverse situations, but no test works well for all tasks with all people in all situations. In his classic 1967 article, Gordon Paul helped psychotherapists move away from the oversimplified search for effective therapies toward a more difficult but meaningful question: "What treatment, by whom, is most effective for this individual with that specific problem, and under which set of circumstances?"

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q9

Q9. Types of direct observation
Direct observation techniques involve obtaining actual samples of the individual’s behavior (Cohen & Swerdik, 2002).

The various types of direct observation are as follows:

Naturalistic observation: involve viewing the individual’s behavior in real-life settings (e.g, psychiatric hospitals, work settings, and classrooms).Controlled observations: involve evaluating behavior in more structured situations (i.e, a laboratory room.) Role playing: which combines the naturalistic and controlled observational method, involves a person playing an assigned role for the purpose of assessing the individual’s behavior in various situations

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q8

Q8. What is implicit memory? Elucidate the tests of implicit memory.
Implicit Memory Implicit memory ("non-declarative" memory) is a type of long-term memory in which previous experiences aid the performance of a task without their conscious awareness. This memory isn't easy to verbalize, since it flows effortlessly in our actions.

Procedural Memory - type of implicit memory that enables us to carry out commonly learned tasks like riding a bike, tying a shoe and washing dishes without consciously thinking about them. It's our "how to" knowledge.

Priming - a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. You are "primed" by your experiences; if you have heard something very recently, or many more times than another thing, you are primed to recall it more quickly. In the brain, the neural pathways representing things we have experienced more often are more…

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q7

Q7. Differentiate between descriptive assessment and predictive assessment.
Assessment in psychology refers to the process of identification of ‘abnormal’ behavior from ‘normal’ behavior so that appropriate classification of the individual can be arrived at and necessary interventions can be made. There are four clinical purposes of assessment – Descriptive assessment, Discriminative assessment, Predictive assessment and Evaluative assessment.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q6

Q6. Explain Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking.
Dr. E. Paul Torrance, “Father of Creativity,” is best known for developing the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). It was developed in 1966 building on J.P. Guilford's  SOI assessments. It has been translated into more than 35 languages (Millar, 2002), is the most widely used test of creativity (Davis, 1997) and is the most referenced of all creativity tests (Lissitz & Willhoft, 1985).

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q5

Q5. Elucidate Wechsler Scales for children. David Wechsler supported the definition of intelligence as a global entity. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) which belongs to the category of tests not derived from theory. The Fifth Edition (WISC-V) is the most current version.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q4

Q4. Discuss psychological assessment for conducting and evaluating therapy.
Psychological testing/assessment is a way to quickly determine the nature and extent of problems, help clarify diagnoses, determine abilities and limitations, and help make decisions about coping abilities. A thorough psychological assessment can also provide information needed to help develop an effective therapeutic treatment program or intervention plan for a client. It helps in the processes of both conducting therapy and evaluating therapy as discussed below.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q3

Q3. Discuss in detail the different stages of psychological assessment.
Psychological assessment is a process of testing that uses a combination of techniques to help arrive at some hypotheses about a person and their behavior, personality and capabilities. The process involves various stages or steps as outlined below. A psychological assessment can be most useful when it addresses specific individual problems and provides guidelines for decision making regarding these problems. Therefore, throughout these phases, psychologist integrates data and serves as an expert on human behavior rather than merely an interpreter of test scores.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q2

Q2. Present an overview of tests measuring conceptual thinking.
Tests of conceptual thinking differ from most other mental tests in that they focus on the quality or process of thinking more than the content of the response. Many of these tests have no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers. Their scores stand for qualitative judgements of the extent to which the response was abstract or concrete, complex or simple, apt or irrelevant. Tests with right and wrong answers belong in the category of tests of abstract conceptualization to the extent that they provide information about how the patient thinks.

Patients with moderate to severe focal or multiple lesions or with significant diffuse injury tend to do poorly on all tests of abstract thinking, regardless of their mode of presentation or channel of response. However, patients with mild, modality specific, or subtle organic defects may not engage in concrete thinking generally, but only on those tasks that directly involve an impaired modality,…

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE012 >> Q1

Q1. Describe the various sources for psychological assessment.
Psychological assessment comprises a variety of procedures that are employed in diverse ways to achieve numerous purposes. Assessment has sometimes been equated with testing, but the assessment process goes beyond merely giving tests. Psychological assessment involves integrating information gleaned not only from test protocols, but also from interview responses, behavioral observations, collateral reports, and historical documents. Listed below are the various sources for Psychological Assessment:

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q18

Q18. Narcissistic Personality Disorder Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder show an exaggerated sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with being admired, and a lack of empathy for the feelings of others (Pincus & Lukowitsky, 2010; Ronningstam, 2005, 2009). Numerous studies support the notion of two subtypes of narcissism: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism (Cain et al., 2008, Ronningstam, 2005).

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q17

Q17. Reformatory Paranoia The chief feature of paranoia is a permanent delusion, and delusion can be of many kinds. Hence, kinds of paranoia have been distinguished on the basis of kinds of delusions. Reformatory paranoia is a type of paranoia in which the individual has a delusion that he is a great reformer/curator. He believes that everyone around is suffering from a dangerous disease or lack of understanding. As their reformer, his goal is to free the others from this disease or lack of understanding.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q16

Q16. Hallucinations A hallucination is a sensory experience that seems real to the person having it, but occurs in the absence of any external perceptual stimulus. The word comes from the Latin verb hallucinere or allucinere, meaning to “wander in mind” or “idle talk” (Aleman & Larøi, 2008). 

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q15

Q15. Postpartum psychosis Postpartum psychosis (or puerperal psychosis) is a term that covers a group of mental illnesses with the sudden onset of psychotic symptoms following childbirth.
These psychoses are endogenous, heritable illnesses with acute onset, benign episodic course and response to mood-normalizing and mood-stabilizing treatments. The onset is abrupt, and symptoms rapidly reach a climax of severity.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q14

Q14. Psychoeducation Psychoeducation refers to the education offered to individuals with a mental health condition and their families to help empower them and deal with their condition in an optimal way. It helps individuals with schizophrenia, clinical depression, anxiety disorders, psychotic illnesses, eating disorders, and personality disorders. 

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q13

Q13. Substance Abuse Substance-Abuse is a maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by one (or more) of the following, occurring within a 12-month period: 1. recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfil major role obligations at work, school, or home  2. recurrent substance use in situations in which it is physically hazardous  3. recurrent substance-related legal problems  4. continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of the substance 

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q12

Q12. Amnesia Amnesia (from Greek ἀμνησία from ἀ- meaning "without" and μνήμη memory), also known as amnesic syndrome, is a deficit in memory. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost. And it may be due to organic brain disorders like dementia or psychiatric conditions like dissociation. 

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q11

Q11. Behaviour  Modification Behavior modification is the traditional term for the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors. The purpose behind behavior modification is not to understand why or how a particular behavior started. Instead, it only focuses on changing the behavior, and there are various different methods used to accomplish it. This includes:

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q10

Q10. Axis IV of DSM-IV TR Axis IV is for reporting psychosocial and environmental problems that may affect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of mental disorders (Axes I and II). 
A psychosocial or environmental problem may be a negative life event, an environmental difficulty or deficiency, a familial or other interpersonal stress, an inadequacy of social support or personal resources, or other problem relating to the context in which a person's difficulties have developed. 

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q9

Q9. Asperger syndrome It is named after Austrian pediatrician Hans Asperger who, in 1944, studied and described children who lacked nonverbal communication skills, demonstrated limited empathy with their peers, and were physically clumsy.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q8

Q8. Types of delusional disorder Delusional disorder refers to a condition associated with one or more non-bizarre delusions of thinking - such as expressing beliefs that occur in real life such as being poisoned, being stalked, being loved or deceived, or having an illness, provided no other symptoms of schizophrenia are exhibited. As per DSM V, the various types of delusional disorders are:
Erotomanic type: In this type, the central theme of the delusion is that another person is in love with the individual. The person about whom this conviction is held is usually of higher status (e.g., a famous individual or a superior at work) but can be a complete stranger. Efforts to contact the object of the delusion are common. 

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q7

Q7. Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), also known as body dysmorphia or dysmorphic syndrome, but originally termed dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by an obsessive preoccupation that some aspect of one's own appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it. The DSM-5 categorizes BDD in the obsessive–compulsive spectrum, and distinguishes it from anorexia nervosa.
Diagnostic Criteria Criterion A: Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (formerly dysmorphophobia) are preoccupied with one or more perceived defects or flaws in their physical appearance, which they believe look ugly, unattractive, abnormal, or deformed. The perceived flaws are not observable or appear only slight to other individuals.  Preoccupations can focus on one or many body areas. Any body area can be the focus of concern. Some individuals are concerned about perceived asymmetry of body areas.  The preoccupations are intrusive, unwanted,…

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q6

Q6. Depersonalisation Disorder Depersonalization disorder is one of a group of conditions called dissociative disorders. Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, consciousness, awareness, identity, and/or perception. When one or more of these functions is disrupted, symptoms can result.
Diagnostic Criteria A. The presence of persistent or recurrent experiences of depersonalization, derealization, or both: Depersonalization: Experiences of unreality, detachment, or being an outside observer with respect to one’s thoughts, feelings, sensations, body, or actions (e.g., perceptual alterations, distorted sense of time, unreal or absent self, emotional and/or physical numbing). Derealization: Experiences of unreality or detachment with respect to surroundings (e.g., individuals or objects are experienced as unreal, dreamlike, foggy, lifeless, or visually distorted).

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q5

Q5. Parenting styles A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. The quality of parenting is far more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. Parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond and demand to their children.

Some potential causes of these differences include culture, personality, family size, parental background, socioeconomic status, educational level, and religion.

During the early 1960s, psychologist Diana Baumrind conducted a study on more than 100 preschool-age children (Baumrind, 1967). Using naturalistic observation, parental interviews and other research methods, she identified four important dimensions of parenting: Disciplinary strategies, Warmth and nurturance, Communication styles and Expectations of maturity and control.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q4

Q4. Childhood depression The fact that a child feels sad, lonely, or irritable does not mean he or she has childhood depression. Childhood depression is persistent sadness. When it occurs, the child feels alone, hopeless, helpless, and worthless. When this type of sadness is unending, it disrupts every part of the child's life. It interferes with the child's daily activities, schoolwork, and peer relationships. It can also affect the life of each family member.
Causes  It could be caused by any combination of factors that relate to physical health, life events, family history, environment, genetic vulnerability, and biochemical disturbance.

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q3

Q3. Describe the diagnostic features, causes and treatment of Schizoid personality disorder.
Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, and apathy.

Affected individuals may simultaneously demonstrate a rich, elaborate and exclusively internal fantasy world. They may demonstrate significant creativity, particularly in the areas of fiction writing[citation needed] and visual arts.

Diagnostic Features

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q2

Q2. Explain bipolar disorders. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe. They can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide.

Diagnosis Doctors diagnose bipolar disorder using guidelines from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). To be diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the symptoms must be a major change from your normal mood or behavior. There are four basic types of bipolar disorder:
1. Bipolar I Disorder—defined by manic or mixed episodes that last at least seven days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks.
2. Bipolar II Disorder—defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but no full-bl…

IGNOU Corner >> Solved Assignments >> MPCE011 >> Q1

Q1. Discuss humanistic approach in relation to psychopathology. The humanistic paradigm argues that human behavior is the product of free will, the view that we control, choose, and are responsible for our actions. In many respects, this stance is a reaction against determinism, the scientific assumption that human behavior is caused by potentially knowable factors (a position held by the other paradigms).

Humanistic Approach Jung and Adler broke sharply with Freud. Their fundamental disagreement concerned the very nature of humanity. Freud portrayed life as a battleground where we are continually in danger of being overwhelmed by our darkest forces. Jung and Adler, by contrast, emphasized the positive, optimistic side of human nature. Jung talked about setting goals, looking toward the future, and realizing one’s fullest potential.

Adler believed that human nature reaches its fullest potential when we contribute to the welfare of other individuals and to society as a whole. He believ…