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Q6. Explain Torrance Test of Creativity Thinking.
Dr. E. Paul Torrance, “Father of Creativity,” is best known for developing the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). It was developed in 1966 building on J.P. Guilford's SOI assessments. It has been translated into more than 35 languages (Millar, 2002), is the most widely used test of creativity (Davis, 1997) and is the most referenced of all creativity tests (Lissitz & Willhoft, 1985).
StructureThe TTCT-Verbal (creative thinking with words) and the TTCT-Figural (creative thinking with figures) are two versions of the TTCT.
- TTCT-Verbal: has two parallel forms, A and B, and consists of five activities:
- ask-and-guess: includes three tasks Asking, Guessing causes and Guessing consequences for the pictured action
- product improvement: subject modifies given toy to improve it
- unusual uses: subject identifies different uses of an item
- unusual questions: subject asks different questions about an item
- just suppose: subject asked to list possible ramifications of an improbable situation
The stimulus for each task includes a picture to which people respond in writing (Torrance, 1966, 1974).
- TTCT-Figural: has two parallel forms, A and B, and consists of three activities:
- picture construction: the subject constructs a picture using a pear or jellybean shape provided on the page as a stimulus (must be integral part of picture)
- picture completion: the subject uses 10 incomplete figures to make an object or picture
- repeated figures of lines or circles: composed of three pages of lines or circles that the subject is to use as a part of his or her picture (Torrance, 1966, 1974, 1990, 1998; Torrance & Ball, 1984).
TTCT can be administered as an individual or group test from the kindergarten level through the graduate level and beyond. It requires 30 min of working time, so speed is important, and artistic quality is not required to receive credit (Chase, 1985).
Torrance (1966, 1974) suggested the following uses for the tests:
- To understand the human mind and its functioning and development.
- To discover effective bases for individualizing instruction.
- To provide clues for remedial and psychotherapeutic programs.
- To evaluate the effects of educational programs, materials, curricula, and teaching procedures.
- To be aware of latent potentialities.
The ‘Streamlined Scoring’ has the following scales:
- Fluency: total number of interpretable, meaningful, and relevant ideas generated in response to the stimulus.
- Originality: statistical rarity of the responses
- Elaboration: amount of detail in the responses
- Resistance to Premature Closure (based on Gestalt Psychology): examinee’s tendency to not immediately close the incomplete figures
- Abstractness of Titles: level of abstractness of the titles
* * *
TTCT is the most famous and widely used of all creativity tests. It was created by Torrance with the objective of evaluating and enhancing creativity. It has two versions verbal and figural, both with two sets of forms A and B. The streamlined scoring looks at the fluency, originality, elaboration, resistance to premature closure and abstractness of titles.
Can We Trust Creativity Tests? A Review of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Kyung Hee Kim Eastern Michigan University (free article)
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