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Showing posts from July, 2015

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q16

16. Algorithm Algorithm is an approach of problem solving where defined set of step-by-step procedures are followed to reach the correct answer to a particular problem. By correctly following the instructions, you are guaranteed to reach the right answer.

Algorithms have four properties:
1. Clear and precise definition of steps
2. Finite number of steps (it ends)
3. Provides correct answer to problem
4. Generically applicable within given context

They are contrasted with heuristics - a mental shortcut that allows people to quickly make judgments and solve problems.

When problem-solving, deciding which method to use depends on the need for either accuracy or speed. If complete accuracy is required, use an algorithm. If time is an issue, use a heuristic.

Example: You have a reservation at a restaurant to meet a friend but can’t remember the name of the place. What can you do?

One approach is to look at yellow pages and see if you remember. Other approach is to try calling all restaurants li…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q15

15. Means-ends analysis Means-ends analysis is a problem solving strategy that arose from the work on problem solving of Newell and Simon (1972).  In means-ends analysis, one solves a problem by considering the obstacles that stand between the initial problem state and the goal state.  The elimination of these obstacles (and, recursively, the obstacles in the way of eliminating these obstacles) are then defined as (simpler) subgoals to be achieved.

When all of the subgoals have been achieved – when all of the obstacles are out of the way – then the main goal of interest has been achieved.  Because the subgoals have been called up by the need to solve this main goal, means-ends analysis can be viewed as a search strategy in which the long-range goal is always kept in mind to guide problem solving.  It is not as near-sighted as other search techniques, like hill climbing.

Means-ends analysis is a version of divide-and-conquer.  The difference between the two is that divide-and-conquer …

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q14

14. Chomsky American linguist whose theory of transformational or generative grammar has had a profound influence on the fields of both linguistics and psychology.

Chomsky was born in Philadelphia and educated at University of Pennsylvania. In 1955, he was appointed to the faculty of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), as professor of foreign languages and linguistics.

He was a pioneer in psycholinguistics, which helped establish a new relationship between linguistics and psychology.

He opposed the behaviorist view of the mind as a tabula rasa and instead proposed the Innateness theory suggesting that certain aspects of linguistic knowledge and ability are the product of a universal innate ability, or "language acquisition device" (LAD), which enables each normal child to construct a systematic grammar and generate phrases. Chomsky argues that the underlying logic, or deep structure, of all languages is the same and that human mastery of it is genetically determine…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q13

13. Surface structure Chomsky argues that the underlying logic, or deep structure, of all languages is the same and that human mastery of it is genetically determined, not learned. Those aspects of language that humans have to study are termed surface structures.

Surface structure refers to the actual words people use and what’s readily apparent about them, whereas deep structure refers to the information that underlies a sentence and gives it meaning. Another way of seeing this distinction is by considering sentences that are grammatically correct but totally devoid of meaning.

For example, consider the sentence, “Dark purple ideas eat angrily.” It is perfectly correct in terms of grammar but has no meaning whatsoever.

In view of such facts, Chomsky and others have argued that we can never understand the true nature of spoken language by focusing only on words and grammatical rules. Rather, we must search for underlying meaning and the ways in which people translate, or transform, t…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q12

12. Dysarthria Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Individuals with dysarthria may experience challenges in the following: Timing, Vocal quality, Pitch, Volume, Breath control, Speed, Strength, Steadiness, Range and Tone.

Causes Causes of dysarthria include nervous system disorders such as stroke, brain injury, brain tumors; toxic, metabolic, degenerative diseases and conditions that cause facial paralysis or tongue or throat muscle weakness. It may also be caused by certain medications.
These result in lesions to key areas of the brain involved in planning, executing, or regulating motor operations in skeletal muscles, including muscles of the head and neck. This results in dysfunction, or failure of: the motor or somatosensory cortex of the brain, corticobulbar pathways, the cerebellum, basal nuclei, brainstem, or the neuro-muscular junction …

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q11

11. Hippocampus Hippocampus is a seahorse shaped paired structure, with one hippocampi located in each hemisphere of the brain. It is located within the temporal lobes, adjacent to the amygdala, under the cerebral cortex and contains two main interlocking parts: Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus.
Functions of Hippocampus include: 1.    Inhibition: The behavioral inhibition theory postulates that Hippocampus plays a role in controlling emotional response. Ex: damage to Hippocampus could make a person hyperactive; they may have difficulty learning to inhibit responses.
2.    Memory: Hippocampus plays an important role in the formation of new memories about experienced events (episodic or autobiographical memory). Part of this function is the detection of novel events, places and stimuli.
3.    Navigation and Spatial orientation: Hippocampus acts as a cognitive map—a neural representation of the layout of the environment. Without a fully functional hippocampus, humans may not remember …

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q10

10. Spatial intelligence Spatial Intelligence is an area in the theory of multiple intelligences that deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. It is defined by Howard Gardner as a human computational capacity that provides the ability or mental skill to solve spatial problems of navigation, visualization of objects from different angles and space, faces or scenes recognition or to notice fine details. Gardner further explains that Spatial Intelligence could be more effective to solve problems in areas related to realistic, thing-oriented, and investigative occupations.

This capability is a brain skill that is also found in people with visual impairment. The spatial reasoning of the blind person allows them to translate tactile sensations into mental calculation of length and visualisation of form.

Spatial intelligence would be important for students interested in studying architecture or engineering. He/she might be an inventor or develop fact…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q9

9. Primary mental abilities Primary mental abilities were first discussed by L.L. Thurstone in 1935 and could be described as latent core constructs that can explain nearly all cognitive differences.

Thurstone found that when measuring intelligence, there are only a handful of aspects that really matter. He found the following aspects:
1. Verbal comprehension - knowledge of vocabulary and in reading
2. Number facility - solving simple arithmetical computation and reasoning problems
3. Word fluency - writing and producing words
4. spatial visualization (mentally visualizing and manipulating objects),
5. inductive reasoning (completing a number series or predicting the future based on past experience),
6. associative memory (remembering people’s names or faces), and
7. perceptual speed (rapidly proofreading to discover typographical errors in a typed text)

The primary mental abilities are organised into clusters known as Secondary Mental abilities – two major components, proposed by Ca…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q8

8. Speech sound disorders Speech sound disorders are speech disorders in which some speech sounds (called phonemes) in a person’s native language are either not produced, not produced correctly, or are not used correctly.
Most children make mistakes when learning new words and sounds. A disorder occurs when the child reaches a certain age and is still making certain mistakes.

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q7

7. Cultural blocks to problem solving Cultural Blocks Cultural blocks refers to the ‘mental blocks’ that are created in the mind due to conditioning to accept certain behaviour as normal in a given situation, even though we might find a much better solution to a problem if we look beyond what is normal.

Some specific cultural inhibitions, according to Adams (1979) and Simbeng (1964) are:
1.    Playfulness is for children only, and serious problem solving requires a serious attitude
2.    Humor has no place in problem solving
3.    The value judgment that inquisitiveness and scepticism are undesirable qualities
4.    Overemphasis on cooperation or on competition
5.    Too much faith in statistics: people don’t look beyond the statistic
6.    Too much faith in reason and logic.
7.    Indulging in fantasy and reflection is worthless and lazy.

What causes cultural blocks? To summarize in two words:  conformity pressures.  It is uncomfortable to be different, to challenge accepted ways of…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q6

6. Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive domain Beginning in 1948, a group of educators undertook the task of classifying education goals and objectives with the intent to develop a classification system for three domains: the cognitive, the affective, and the psychomotor. Work on the cognitive domain was completed in the 1950s and is commonly referred to as Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain (Bloom, Englehart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956).

The idea is that what educators want students to learn can be arranged in a hierarchy from less to more complex.

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q5

5. Self reference effect The self-reference effect is a tendency for people to encode information differently depending on the level to which the self is implicated in the information. When people are asked to remember information related in some way to the self, the recall rate can be improved.

Research suggests that self-structure is unique, relative to other concepts (e.g., those about other people; see Kihlstrom et al., 1988; Markus, 1977; and Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977), in its motivational and affective implications as well as in its structure and content. Appraisal theories of emotion have emphasized the phenomenological importance of the self in the interpretation of events and the resulting effect on emotions (Fiske & Taylor, 1991 ).

Example, the tendency to attribute another person's behavior to dispositional factors but one's own behavior to situational factors occurs because the self dominates one's phenomenal perspective (Ross & Nisbett, 1991;…

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q4

4. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children KABC, was developed (by Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman in 1983) from neuropsychological theory. The second edition (KABC-II, published in 2004), is an individually administered measure of the processing and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents aged 3–18. It is a theory based instrument grounded in a dual theoretical foundation: the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) psychometric model of broad and narrow abilities and Luria’s neuropsychological theory of processing.

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q3

3. Discuss the structure of language. Structure of language is considered to be hierarchical In a hierarchy elements at one level combine to construct elements at the higher level, a causal or constructive relationship. Elements at one level ‘choose’ or constrain elements at the lower level, a regulatory relationship. Low level elements are necessarily smaller than higher level units. Language is hierarchical in its structure. Ex: what we use syntax for is constrained by what we wish to say i.e., semantics rules over syntax.

But, language isn’t a pure hierarchy. Ex: Phonology can impinge on syntactical analysis and on semantics - as in ‘Oh yeah, I really love statistics’

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q2

2. Describe Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence. The triarchic theory of intelligence was formulated by Robert J. Sternberg (Sternberg, 1985; Sternberg et al., 1995), a prominent figure in the research of human intelligence. The theory was among the first to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach.

Sternberg’s definition of human intelligence is “a mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life” (Sternberg, 1985, p. 45), which means that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan.

### Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC001 >> Q1

Q1. Discuss the information processing and computer simulation approach to problem solving. The development of the modern computer has influenced current ways of thinking about cognition through computer simulation of cognitive processes for research purposes and through the creation of information-processing models.

These models portray cognition as a system that receives information, represents it with symbols, and then manipulates the representations in various ways. The senses transmit information from outside stimuli to the brain, which applies perceptual processes to interpret it and then decides how to respond to it. The information may simply be stored in the memory or it may be acted on. Acting on it usually affects a person’s environment in some way, providing more feedback for the system to process.

Information is defined as a pattern that "rides" on matter or energy. In information sciences patterns and structures are the primary focus of study. One entity can …

### PsyConcepts >> Determinants of Personality

Factors that affect an individual's personality
Posted by Psychology Learners on Friday, 17 July 2015

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### PsyQuotes >> Psychology has a long past, but only a short history

Must read quotes related to Psychology.Visit http://PsychologyLearners.blogspot.com/ for more!Posted by Psychology Learners on Saturday, 4 July 2015