Smiling - role in Development


IGNOU Students - please visit the FREE IGNOU Help Center for latest updates.

Smiling is critical as a means of developing a new social skill and is a key social signal (Campos, 2009). Two types of smiling can be distinguished in infants:
- Reflexive smile: A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month after birth, usually during sleep.
- Social smile: A smile that occurs in response to an external stimulus, typically a face in the case of the young infant. Social smiling occurs as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age in response to a caregiver’s voice (Campos, 2005).

Daniel Messinger (2008) described the developmental course of infant smiling:
- 2-6 months: infants’ social smiling increases considerably, both in self-initiated smiles and smiles in response to others’ smiles
- 6-12 months: smiles that couple the Duchenne marker (eye constriction) and mouth opening occur during highly enjoyable interactions and play with parents
- Second year: smiling continues to occur in positive circumstances with parents. Increase in smiling occurs when interacting with peers. Increased awareness of the social meaning of smiles. Anticipatory smiling occurs - communicating preexisting positive emotion by smiling at an object and then turning their smile toward an adult.

* * *

Life-Span Development, John W. Santrock (Click for eBook)

If you found this useful, do remember to like Psychology Learners on Facebook and subscribe by email.

For 'SuperNotes' click here.

For Free eBook previews click here.

For other IGNOU MAPC material click here.

For IGNOU related information and material click here.

IGNOU Students - please visit the FREE IGNOU Help Center for latest updates.

IGNOU Solved Assignments:
Q11 - MAPC MPC002 Life Span Psychology - MPC-002/ASST/TMA/2014-15
Start the discussion!
Comment using Facebook
What others like...

Are you a Mental Health Leader?

If you are a psychologist, psychiatrist, counselor, therapist, educator or a mental health institution administrator we can help you improve your client satisfaction and generate higher revenues.

Contact Us

The Real Happiness Center

With a focus on positive psychology and passion for spreading happiness in the world, The Real Happiness Center is helping people find out what happiness means to them, and how they can achieve it.