Showing posts from September, 2015

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q18

18. Wilcoxon Test One of the best ways to improve power is by employing repeated measures or matching, and such designs can be analyzed with nonparametric methods. A useful test to see whether the members of a pair differ in size, Wilcoxon’s test resembles the Sign-Test in scope, but it is much more sensitive. In fact, for large numbers it is almost as sensitive as the Student t-test. For small numbers with unknown distributions this test is even more sensitive than the Student t-test.

When we do not know whether values are normally distributed, this test is preferred over the Student t-test.
Comparisons to Other Tests

Ranking discrepancies that can’t be quantified precisely is difficult, which probably accounts for why Wilcoxon’s T is rarely used in that way. The more common use for this test is as an alternative to the matched t test. The Wilcoxon test will usually have as much as 90% of the power of the matched t test; the sign test will have considerably less power.

The Wilcoxon …

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q17

17. Scatter plot Graphic display of data communicates the nature of a distribution more quickly and vividly.

Scatterplot is arguably the most informative device for illustrating a bivariate distribution and visually assess correlation between two variables.

A scatterplot has two equal-length axes, one for each variable (“bivariate"). The horizontal axis of of figure below represents score values on the spatial reasoning test (X), and the vertical axis represents score values on the test of mathematical ability (Y). Each axis is marked off according to the variable’s scale.

Each dot, or data point, represents a student’s two scores simultaneously.

All you need to construct a scatterplot is graph paper, ruler, pencil, and a close eye on accuracy as you plot each data point. Consider the inspection of scatterplots to be a mandatory part of correlational work because of the visual information they convey.

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Fundamentals of Statistical reasoning in Education, Theodore Col…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q16

16. Variance The variance, denoted with the symbol S2, is the mean of the squared deviation scores. Because the variance is responsive to the value of each score in a distribution, the variance uncovers differences in variability that less sophisticated measures of variability (e.g., range) do not.

The numerator of this expression, the sum of the squared deviations from the mean, has its own abbreviation; it is known as the sum of squares, or SS.

The variance finds its greatest use in more advanced statistical procedures, particularly in statistical inference.

The calculated value of the variance is expressed in squared units of measurement. Not only is a “squared word" difficult to understand in its own right, but the squaring is problematic on more technical grounds as well: If the scores of one distribution deviate twice as far from the mean as those of another, the variance of the first distribution will actually be four times as large as that of the second. Because of this,…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q15

15. Degree of freedom The concept of degrees of freedom is central to the principle of estimating statistics of populations from samples of them. "Degrees of freedom" is commonly abbreviated to df. df is a mathematical restriction that needs to be put in place when estimating one statistic from an estimate of another.

Ex 1: Imagine you have four numbers (a, b, c and d) that must add up to a total of m; you are free to choose the first three numbers at random, but the fourth must be chosen so that it makes the total equal to m - thus your degree of freedom is three.

Ex 2: Take data that has been drawn at random from a normal distribution. In order to estimate standard deviation (sigma), we must first estimate mean (mu). Thus, mu is replaced by x-bar in the formula for sigma i.e., we work with the deviations from mu estimated by the deviations from x-bar. At this point, we need to apply the restriction that the deviations must sum to zero. Thus, degrees of freedom are n-1 in …

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q14

14. Point biserial correlation
It is a special case of correlation in which one of the variables has only two possible values, and these values represent different groups.

For instance, it is possible to find the correlation between height and gender. At first, this may seem impossible, because gender is not quantifiable, and you need numbers for both variables to calculate r.

However, you can arbitrarily assign two different numbers to the two different groups and then calculate the correlation. It doesn’t matter what two numbers you assign: You will get the same r if you use 1 and 2, or 3 and 17. The r you get, which is called the point-biserial r (symbolized rpb ), is meaningful.

Suppose you assign 1 to females and 2 to males and correlate these gender numbers with their heights. In this case, r will measure the tendency for the heights to get larger as the gender number gets larger (i.e., goes from 1 to 2).

If we assign the larger gender number to females, the sign of r will reve…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q13

13. Type 1 error
The decision to reject or retain H0 depends on the announced level of significance, α. α is a statement of risk that the researcher is willing to assume in making a decision about H0.

When H0 is true (µ0 = µtrue), 5% of all possible sample means nevertheless will lead to the conclusion that H0 is false because 5% of the sample means fall in the “rejection" region of the sampling distribution, even though these extreme means will occur (though rarely) when H0 is true. Thus, there’s a probability of .05 that H0 will be rejected when it is actually true. Rejecting a true H0 is a decision error.

Level of significance, α, gives the probability of rejecting H0 when it is actually true. Rejecting H0 when it is true is known as a Type I error.

A Type I error is getting statistically significant results “when you shouldn’t." To reduce the risk of making such an error, the researcher can set α at a lower level.

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Fundamentals of Statistical reasoning in…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q12

12. Point estimation
A point estimate is a single value—a “point"—taken from a sample and used to estimate the corresponding parameter in the population. A statistic is an estimate of a parameter: X estimates m, s estimates s, s2 estimates s2, r estimates r, and P estimates p.

Opinion polls offer the most familiar example of a point estimate. When, on the eve of a presidential election, you hear on CNN that 55% of voters prefer Candidate X (based on a random sample of likely voters), you have been given a point estimate of voter preference in the population.

Point estimates should not be stated alone. That is, they should not be reported without some allowance for error due to sampling variation. Without additional information, it cannot be known whether a point estimate is likely to be fairly close to the mark (the parameter) or has a good chance of being far off.

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Fundamentals of Statistical reasoning in Education, Theodore Coladarci, Casey D. Cobb, Edward W. Min…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q11

11. Histogram When the concept of a bar chart is generalized to quantitative data, we get a histogram.

The histogram comprises a series of bars of uniform width, each one representing the frequency associated with a particular class interval. As with the bar chart, either absolute or relative frequencies may be used on the vertical axis of a histogram, as long as the axis is labeled accordingly.

Unlike the bar chart, the bars of a histogram are contiguous—their boundaries touch—to capture the quantitative nature of the data. (The exception occurs when an ordinal variable is graphed). Values along the horizontal axis, the class intervals, are ordered left to right from the smallest to the largest.

The histogram also communicates the underlying shape of the distribution— ex: more scores at the upper end, fewer at the lower end. Although the latter observation also can be made from Table, such observations are more immediate with a well constructed histogram.

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q10

10. Level of Significance The level of significance, α, specifies how rare the sample result must be in order to reject H0 as untenable. It is a probability (typically .05, .01, or .001) based on the assumption that H0 is true.

The probability, let’s say .05, is split evenly between the two tails—2.5% on each side—because of the non-directional, two-tailed nature of H1. The regions defined by the shaded tails are called regions of rejection (or critical regions), for if the sample mean falls in either, H0 is rejected as untenable. The critical values of z separate the regions of rejection from the middle region of retention.

There are two ways to evaluate the tenability of H0:
1. Compare p value to α (in this case, .0278 < .05)
2. Compare calculated z ratio to its critical value (+ 2.20 > + 1.96)

Because both p (i.e., area) and the calculated z reflect the location of the sample mean relative to the region of rejection, conclusion regarding H0 will be same.

α gives the probabil…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q9

9. Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis that states, "This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that sleep deprived people will perform worse on a test than individuals who are not sleep deprived."

Hypothesis is of two types:

The null hypothesis, H0, plays a central role in statistical hypothesis testing: It is the hypothesis that is assumed to be true and formally tested, it is the hypothesis that determines the sampling distribution to be employed, and it is the hypothesis about which the final decision to "reject" or "retain" is madeThe alternative hypothesis, H1, specifies the alternative population condition that is “supported" or “asserted" upon rej…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q8

8. A research was carried out in which the students of mathematics and literature were asked to express their preference for lecture method and group discussion method.
The data obtained is given below. Find out whether the preference for a method is dependent on the subject taken by the students.

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MPC002: LifeSpan Psychology
MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q7

7. With the help of following data, determine both the regression equations
Psychology (X): Mean= 30, Standard deviation=1.6
Sociology (Y): Mean= 25, Standard deviation= 1.7
Coefficient of correlation = 0.95

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MPC002: LifeSpan Psychology
MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q6

6. Discuss the procedure of ANOVA.
In analysis of variance, a continuous response variable, known as a dependent variable, is measured under experimental conditions identified by classification variables, known as independent variables.The variation in the response is assumed to be due to effects in the classification, with random error accounting for the remaining variation.

The steps below explain the procedure of Anova. The general logic of analysis of variance is the same as that of significance tests. That is, you assume H0 to be true and then determine whether the obtained sample result is rare enough to raise doubts about H0. 
To do this, convert the sample result into a test statistic (F, in this case). Then locate it in the theoretical sampling distribution (the F distribution). If the test statistic falls in the region of rejection, H0 is rejected; if not, H0 is retained. The only new twist is that if H0 is rejected, follow-up testing is required to identify the

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q5

5. Discuss in detail the measures of central tendency with suitable example. Central tendency refers to the descriptive statistic that best represents the center of a data set, the particular value that all the other data seem to be gathering around. The key measures of central tendency are:

Mean, the Arithmetic Average The most commonly reported measure of central tendency is the mean, the arithmetic average of a group of scores. It is calculated by summing all the scores in a data set and then dividing this sum by the total number of scores.

For example, if we explore the numbers of top finishes that countries had in World Cup soccer tournaments, the mean would be calculated by first adding the number of top finishes for each country, then dividing by the total number of countries. For the 14 countries that had at least 1 top finish:
4 + 8 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 + 2 + 6 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 10 = 46

In this case, we divide 46, the sum of all scores, by 14, the number of scores in this sam…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q4

4. Calculate coefficient between the following sets of scores using Pearson’s Product Moment method.

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MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q3

3. Test the hypothesis of no difference between the groups by using Mann- Whitney U test with the help of the following data...

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MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q2

2. A study was conducted in which the teachers were asked to rate students for a
particular trait on a ten point scale. With the help of data given below find out whether significant difference exists in the rating of the students by the teachers.

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MPC002: LifeSpan Psychology
MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC006 >> Q1

1. Explain in detail about Normal Probability Curve with suitable diagrams. A normal probability curve shows the theoretical shape of a normally distributed histogram.  The shape of the normal probability curve is based on two parameters:  mean (average) and standard deviation (sigma). It is based upon the law of probability discovered by French mathematician Abraham Demoiver (1667 – 1754).

The normal curve offers a convenient and reasonably accurate description of a great number of variables. It also describes the distribution of many statistics from samples. For example, if you drew 100 random samples from a population of teenagers and computed the mean weight of each sample, you would find that the distribution of the 100 means approximates the normal curve. In such situations, the fit of the normal curve is often very good indeed.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q18

18. Concept of cross sectional survey research design. It involves the collection of quantitative data on at least two variables at one point in time (or over a short period) and from a number of cases. 
The data is used to look for patterns of association or relationships either in the group as a whole (all cases) or in subgroups sharing characteristics or attributes (females or males for example). 
Advantages of cross-sectional studies 1. Relatively inexpensive and takes up little time to conduct; 2. Can estimate prevalence of outcome of interest as sample is usually taken from the whole population; 3. Many outcomes and risk factors can be assessed; 4. Useful for public health planning, understanding disease aetiology and for the generation of hypotheses; 5. There is no loss to follow-up.
Disadvantages of cross-sectional studies 1. Difficult to make causal inference in simple statistical tests of relationships but causal inferences can be made using sophisticated techniques such as r…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q17

17. Criteria for selecting a case study. Case study analysis focuses on a small number of cases expected to provide insight into a causal relationship across a larger population of cases. A case selection based on representativeness may not generate revealing insights. Researchers, therefore, prefer information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling, for selecting case-study subjects.

Cases can be selected based on three criteria:
1. Key cases: The case might be given and studied with an intrinsic interest in the case itself or the circumstances surrounding it. The researcher has no interest in generalising the findings. He focuses on understanding the case. If findings are generalised, it is done by audiences through “naturalistic generalisation”.
2. Purposefully or analytically selected case: A case may be purposefully selected in virtue of being, for instance, information-rich, critical, revelatory, unique, or extreme (Stake 1995, Patton 1990). In this case, then there may…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q16

16. Meaning of ethnography. “Ethnographic writing” entails the close study of a local community, culture, group, or activity. It is the study of the history, customs, myths, traditions and CULTURE of ethnic groups. Such groups may have in common the same GENE pool, nationality, religion, language or any permutation of these factors.

Ethnography is generally carried out by researchers who do not belong to the ethnic community under study but who spend a considerable amount of time within the ethnic community and usually speak the local language.

Ethnographers seek to uncover how cultural practices take shape, drawing on an interdisciplinary array of qualitative fieldwork and/or primary research methods—participatory involvement, observation, photography, mapping exercises, interviews, note taking, focus group discussions and then move to analysis, interpretation, and triangulation.

Of particular interest to psychologists are:
• Clinical ethnography
• Person-centered ethnography an appro…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q15

15. Relevance of grounded theory. In research using grounded theory, researchers start with the data and develop a theory or an interpretation that is “grounded in” those data. They do this in stages.
1. First, they identify ideas that are repeated throughout the data.
2. Then they organize these ideas into a smaller number of broader themes.
3. Finally, they write a theoretical narrative—an interpretation—of the data in terms of the themes that they have identified.

Following factors make the grounded theory relevant in Psychological research:
• Inductive research: The theory development based on actual data gathered through qualitative research despite the fact that events are processed and interpreted through the eyes of both participant and researcher.
• Good reliability and validity: The grounding of theory in data tends to make it more reflective of practical situations than speculatively derived theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967).
• Opportunity to discover new facts: The researche…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q14

14. Difference between independent and dependent variable. All experiments examine some kind of variable(s). A variable is not only something that we measure, but also something that we can manipulate and something we can control for.

An independent variable, sometimes called an experimental or predictor variable, is a variable that is being manipulated in an experiment in order to observe the effect on a dependent variable, sometimes called an outcome variable. The dependent variable is simply a variable that is dependent on an independent variable(s).

Example: A tutor wants to know why some students perform better than others in a Maths test. She thinks that it might be because of two reasons: (1) some students spend more time revising for their test; and (2) some students are naturally more intelligent than others. She decides to investigate the effect of revision time and intelligence on the test performance of the 100 students. The variables for the study would be:
• Dependent V…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q13

13. Method of snow ball sampling. Some populations that we are interested in studying can be hard-to-reach and/or hidden. These include populations such as drug addicts, homeless people, AIDS/HIV patients, prostitutes etc. The populations can be hard-to-reach and/or hidden due to social stigma, illicit or illegal behaviours, or other traits that makes them atypical and/or socially marginalized. Snowball sampling is a type of non-probability sampling technique i.e., the technique is based on the judgement of the researcher, and can be used to gain access to such populations.

To create a snowball sample, there are two steps:
1. First, we need to try and find one or more units from the population we are studying. Ex: If we want to study students that take drugs, the aim is to start with whatever small number students, who are willing to participate, even if it’s one or two units.
2. Using these units to find further units and so on until the sample size is met. Ex: The researcher asks t…

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q12

12. Meaning of reliability. Reliability refers to the repeatability of findings. It refers to consistency: if the results of a test or measurement are reliable, a person should receive a similar score if tested on different occasions.. Ex: When people take a vocabulary test two times, their scores on the two occasions should be very similar. If so, the test can then be described as reliable.

Reliability takes the following forms:
1. Test-retest reliability: Similar result obtained when the same test administered twice over a period of time to a group of individuals.
2. Parallel forms reliability: Similar result obtained when different versions of an assessment tool are administered to the same group of individuals.
3. Inter-rater reliability: Similar results are obtained when different judges or raters administer the test.
4. Internal consistency reliability: It is used to evaluate the degree to which different test items that probe the same construct produce similar results.

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q11

11. Significance of hypothesis formulation. Hypothesis formulation has a very important role in research. Following are the various reasons behind it:
1. It provides a tentative explanation of phenomena and facilitates the extension of knowledge in an area.
2. It provides the investigator with a relational statement that is directly testable in a research study.
3. It provides direction to the research by setting a goal to achieve – proving or disproving the hypothesis.
4. It provides a framework for reporting conclusions of the study.
5. It could be considered as the working instrument of theory. Hypotheses can be deduced from theory and from other hypotheses.
6. It could be tested and shown to be probably supported or not supported, apart from man’s own values and opinions.

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q10

10. Definition of research design. The term research design refers to the overall strategy that you choose to integrate the different components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring you will effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data.

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and evaluation of data in a fashion which is designed to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in process.

The function of a research design is to ensure that the evidence obtained enables us to answer the initial question as unambiguously as possible.

Key elements of a good research design include:
a. sources and kinds of information strongly related to the research problem.
b. strategy indicating which method is going to be employed for collecting and analysing the data.
c. the time and cost budgets because most research is done under these two constraints.

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q9

9. Difference between causal comparative and experimental research designCausal Comparative or Ex Post Facto Research Design: This research design attempts to explore cause and affect relationships where causes already exist and cannot be manipulated. It uses what already exists and looks backward to explain why.

Experimental Research Design: This design is most appropriate in controlled settings such as laboratories. The design assumes random assignment of subjects and random assignment to groups. It attempts to explore cause and affect relationships where causes can be manipulated to produce different kinds of effects. Because of the requirement of random assignment, this design can be difficult to execute in the real world (non-laboratory) setting.

The differences in causal-comparison and experimental studies are:
CCS: individuals are not randomly selected but selected because they belong to groups
ES: individuals are randomly selected and assigned to two (or more) groups
CCS: the …

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Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q8

8. Strategies of interpreting data in a qualitative research. In interpreting qualitative research data the idea is to examine the meaningful and symbolic content within it. This can be done using a deductive (use questions to group data) or inductive approach (look for relationships within the data).

Analyzing qualitative data is an eclectic process. There is no single, accepted approach. It involves a simultaneous process while you are also collecting data and the phases are also iterative.

The first step involves organizing and transcribing the data. The collected data should be properly managed so that there is no loss of any manner.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q7

7. Types of questions that can be used in a survey research. Questionnaires can be an effective means of measuring the behaviour, attitudes, preferences, opinions and intentions of relatively large numbers of subjects more cheaply and quickly than other methods.

Survey questions can be divided into two broad types:
1) Closed questions: They structure the answer by allowing only answers which fit into categories that have been decided in advance by the researcher.

a) Dichotomous Questions: Questions having two possible responses such as Yes/No, True/False or Agree/Disagree.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q6

6. Distinguish between field and experimental research design. An experiment is a systematic way of proving or disproving a hypothesis and used to determine a cause and effect relationship between the subject and its environment. Key differences between experimental research and field study are:

Setting Experimental research is done in a closed setting or in a highly controlled environment. This lets researchers conduct full replication of the experiment in other laboratories.
Field experiment, on the other hand, takes place in the “real” world (natural settings).

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q5

5. Research Biases. Bias is the distortion of results by a variable. Some of the common biases that may impact the results of a research study are:

Sampling Bias Sampling bias occurs when the sample studied in an experiment does not correctly represent the population the researcher wants to draw conclusions about.

Example: A psychologist wants to study the eating habits of a population of New Yorkers who are between eighteen and forty-five years old. Because she can’t study the entire group she’d have to take a sample. However, she can generalize her results to the whole population only if her sample is representative of the population. If this is not the case, her sample will reflect sampling bias.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q4

4. Type of Quasi Experimental Designs. A quasi-experiment is one that applies an experimental interpretation to results that do not meet all the requirements of a true experiment. It means when the situation is such that the experimenter has some control over the manipulation of independent variables but fails to arrange for the other basic requirement of a true experiment, which is, creating equivalent groups.

The various types of Quasi-experimental designs are listed below:

Time-series design When a control group or comparison group cannot be included in an experiment because of the situation in

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q3

3. Explain the assumptions, theories and steps of discourse analysis. Discourse analysis Discourse analysis involves an ‘analysis of the ways in which discourses – which can be read in texts and talk – constitute the social world (Mason, 2006). Discourse analysis is a qualitative research method that investigates the use of language in social contexts. Concerned with the creation of meaning through talk and texts, discourse analysis provides insights into the way language works to help “shape and reproduce social meanings and forms of knowledge” (Tonkiss, 2012, p. 403).

Assumptions of Discourse Analysis  Grounded in social constructivism, which emphasizes the sociocultural interactions as sources of knowledge, discourse analysis is based on the three theoretical assumptions (Potter,1996) :

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q2

2. What are the different steps followed for conducting a scientific research? Steps followed for conducting a scientific research Scientific research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis so that the researcher can come to a conclusion. The scientific research process is a multiple-step process where the steps are interlinked with the other steps in the process. If changes are made in one step of the process, the researcher must review all the other steps to ensure that the changes are reflected throughout the process.

Step 1: Identify the Problem The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the researcher identifies as a problem or some knowledge or information that is to be developed. This serves as the focus of the study.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC005 >> Q1

1. Explain the factorial design with the help of a suitable example. Factorial design Traditional research methods generally study the effect of one variable at a time, because it is statistically easier to manipulate. However, in many cases, two factors may be interdependent, and it is impractical or false to attempt to analyse them in the traditional way.

By far the most common approach to including multiple independent variables in an experiment is the factorial design. In a factorial design, each level of one independent variable (which can also be called a factor) is combined with each level of the others to produce all possible combinations. Each combination, then, becomes a condition in the experiment. There is an interaction effect (or just “interaction”) when the effect of one independent variable depends on the level of another.

Solved IGNOU Assignment >> MPC004 >> Q18

18. How is attitude related to belief? The defining characteristic of attitudes Is that they express and evaluation of some object (Insko & Schopler, 1972; Petty & Cacioppo, 1981). Evaluations are expressed by terms such as liking-disliking, pro-anti, favoring-not favoring, and positive-negative. They are the feeling tone aroused by any attitude object. Attitudes can be formed about many things – entities, people, or abstract concepts. Anything that arouses evaluative feelings qualifies as an object of attitudes.

Beliefs are cognitions, or thoughts, about the characteristics of objects. They link objects to attributes (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Attitude is typically associated with a number of specific beliefs about an object. We have evaluative feelings about beliefs, which contribute to our attitude.

For example, your friend may believe that certain politician has a sound economic policy, will work to lower taxes, will help to prevent war, and so on. These beliefs will d…