Q5. Elucidate Wechsler Scales for children.David Wechsler supported the definition of intelligence as a global entity. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) which belongs to the category of tests not derived from theory. The Fifth Edition (WISC-V) is the most current version.
StructureThe subscales are clustered in four categories as listed below:
- Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI):
- Vocabulary - asked to define a provided word.
- Similarities - asked how two words are alike/similar.
- Comprehension - questions about social situations or common concepts.
- Information (supplemental) - general knowledge questions.
- Word reasoning (supplemental)- a task involving clues that lead to a specific word
- Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI):
- Block Design — children put together red-and-white blocks in a pattern
- Picture Concepts — children asked to determine which pictures go together from a series of pictures
- Matrix Reasoning — children select picture that fits a missing picture in an array
- Picture Completion (supplemental) - children identify missing part of an artwork/common object by pointing and/or naming.
- Working Memory Index (WMI):
- Digit Span - children asked to repeat orally given sequences of numbers,
- Letter-Number Sequencing — children provide back to the examiner, in a predetermined order, a series of numbers and letters
- Arithmetic (supplemental) - orally administered arithmetic questions.
- Processing Speed Index (PSI):
- Coding — children under 8 mark rows of shapes with different lines according to a code, children over 8 transcribe a digit-symbol code.
- Symbol Search — children asked to mark whether or not target symbols appear in given row of symbols.
- Cancellation (supplemental)- children mark specific target pictures in a random and structured arrangements of pictures
WISC-V is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16 inclusive that can be completed without reading or writing. It takes 48–65 minutes to administer. Variation in testing procedures and goals can reduce time of assessment to 15-20 minutes for the assessment of a single primary index, or increase testing time to three or more hours for a complete assessment, including all primary, ancillary, and complementary indices.
Purpose and Scoring
- It generates a Full Scale IQ (formerly known as an intelligence quotient or IQ score) which represents a child's general intellectual ability.
- It also provides five primary index scores (i.e., Verbal Comprehension Index, Visual Spatial Index, Fluid Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, and Processing Speed Index) that represent a child's abilities in more discrete cognitive domains.
- Five ancillary composite scores can be derived from various combinations of primary or primary and secondary subtests.
- Five complementary subtests yield three complementary composite scores to measure related cognitive abilities relevant to assessment and identification of specific learning disabilities, particularly dyslexia and dyscalculia.
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The WISC, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16. It generates a full scale IQ and scores across four dimensions – Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index and Processing Speed Index.
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