PsyQuotes

eBooks

Videos


Q2. Discuss the concept and applications of behaviour modification. What are the various methods used in behaviour modification? Explain with suitable examples.


Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors, such as altering an individual's behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of behavior through its extinction, punishment and/or satiation.


Concept of Behavior Modification

Behavior modification is based on methodological behaviorism, which refers to limiting behavior-change procedures to behaviors that are observable—in particular, superimposing consequences, such as increasing or decreasing the frequency of behaviors and altering an individual's behaviors through positive and negative reinforcement to increase desirable behavior and/or the reduction of behavior through extinction and punishment.

Behavior modification uses the principles of operant conditioning, which were developed by American behaviorist B. F. Skinner (1904-1990). Skinner formulated the concept of operant conditioning, through which behavior could be shaped by reinforcement or lack of it. Skinner considered his concept applicable to a wide range of both human and animal behaviors and introduced operant conditioning to the general public in his 1938 book, The Behavior of Organisms .

Martin and Pear indicate that there are seven characteristics to behavior modification, namely:
- strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measured in some way
- treatment techniques are ways of altering an individual's current environment to help him/her function more fully
- methods and rationales can be described precisely
- techniques are often applied in everyday life
- techniques are based largely on principles of learning specifically operant conditioning and respondent conditioning
- There is a strong emphasis on scientific demonstration that a particular technique was responsible for a particular behavior change
- There is a strong emphasis on accountability for everyone involved in a behavior modification program.

Applications of Behavior Modification

Behavior modification can be useful in a variety of situations:
  1. Treatment of problems:
    1. Clinical Psychology: Behavior modification has been successfully used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), phobias, enuresis (bed-wetting), generalized anxiety disorder , and separation anxiety disorder , among others.
    2. Health Psychology: to increase compliance with medical regimens
    3. Issues with children: helps treat problems such as bedwetting, noncompliance etc.
    4. Mental Illnesses: Used to modify behaviors of patients with chronic mental illness
    5. Developmental Disabilities: To reduce self-injurious behaviors, aggressive and destructive behaviors in such patients
    6. Rehabilitation: Used to improve the efficacy of rehabilitation routines and decrease problem behaviors
  2. To increase desired behaviors in various settings:
    1. Sports: increasing healthy lifestyle behaviors
    2. Foster homes and prisons: helps in reducing recidivism for adolescents with conduct problems and adult offenders
    3. Community: to increase desired behaviors in the community. Ex: compliance with law
    4. Industry: to enhance productivity and sales by influencing employee and consumer behavior
    5. Schools and Colleges: to improve the pedagogy to ensure maximum learning by students

Methods used in Behavior Modification

Behavior modification methods can be divided into five categories:
  1. Developing a new behavior: 
    1. Successive Approximation Principle: To teach a person to act in a manner in which he has seldom or never before behaved, reward successive steps to the final behavior (also called shaping)
    2. Continuous Reinforcement Principle: To develop a new behavior that the person has not previously exhibited, arrange for an immediate reward after each correct performance.
    3. Negative Reinforcement Principle: To increase a person’s performance in a particular way, arrange for him to avoid or escape a mild aversive situation by improving his behavior or by allowing him to avoid the aversive situation by behaving appropriately.
    4. Cueing Principle: To teach a person to remember to act at a specific time, arrange for him to receive a cue for the correct performance just before the action is expected rather than after he has performed it incorrectly.
  2. Strengthening a behavior:
    1. Decreasing Reinforcement Principle: To encourage a person to continue performing an established behavior with few or no rewards, gradually require a longer time period or more correct responses before a correct behavior is rewarded.
    2. Variable Reinforcement Principle: To improve or increase a person’s performance of a certain activity, provide the child with an intermittent reward.
  3. Maintaining an established behavior:
    1. Substitution Principle: To change reinforcers when a previously effective reward is no longer controlling behavior, present it just before (or as soon as possible to) the time you present the new, hopefully more effective reward.
  4. Stopping inappropriate behavior
    1. Satiation Principle: allow the person to continue (or insist that he continue) performing the undesired act until he tires of it.
    2. Extinction Principle: To stop a person from acting in a particular way, you may arrange conditions so that he receives no rewards following the undesired act.
    3. Incompatible Alternative Principle: To stop a person from acting in a particular way, you may reward an alternative action that is inconsistent with or cannot be performed at the same time as the undesired act.
    4. Response Cost Principle: To stop a person from acting in a certain way, remove a pleasant stimulus immediately after the action occurs. Since response cost results in increased hostility and aggression, it should only be used infrequently and in conjunction with reinforcement.
    5. Punishment:
    6. Positive Punishment: adding a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is emitted to decrease future responses. Disapproval, criticism, pain and fines are common forms.
    7. Negative Punishment: taking away a certain desired item after the undesired behavior happens in order to decrease future responses.
    8. Overcorrection: Can involve practicing correct behaviors after making mistakes (positive practice) or correcting a mistake (restitution)
  5. Modifying emotional behavior:
    1. Avoidance Principle: To teach a person to avoid a certain type of situation, simultaneously present to the child the situation to be avoided (or some representation of it) and some aversive condition (or its representation).
    2. Fear Reduction Principle: To help a person overcome his fear of a particular situation, gradually increase his exposure to the feared situation while he is otherwise comfortable, relaxed, secure or rewarded.

* * *

Behavior modification is an effective technique used to treat many problems related to clinical psychology, health psychology, mental illnesses, rehabilitation etc. and to increase desired behaviors in various settings such as sports, business, prisons etc.  

It draws heavily on the concepts of respondent conditioning and operant conditioning. The methods used in Behavior modification can be categorized into five sets – developing a new behavior, strengthening a behavior, maintaining an established behavior, stopping inappropriate behavior and modifying emotional behavior.

Sources:

If you found this useful, do remember to like Psychology Learners on Facebook and subscribe by email.




In a hurry? Download the full solved IGNOU assignments from the links below>>

MPC001: Cognitive Psychology
MPC002: LifeSpan Psychology
MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology
MPCE011: Psychopathology (not uploaded yet)
MPCE012: Psychodiagnostics (not uploaded yet)
MPCE013: Psychotherapeutic Methods (not uploaded yet)
MPCE021: Counselling Psychology (not uploaded yet)
MPCE022: Assessment in Counselling and Guidance (not uploaded yet)
MPCE023: Interventions in Counselling (not uploaded yet)
MPCE031: Organisational Behaviour (not uploaded yet)
MPCE032: Human Resource Development (not uploaded yet)
MPCE033: Organisational Development (not uploaded yet)

For 'SuperNotes' click here.

For Free eBook previews click here.

For other IGNOU MAPC material click here.

For IGNOU related information and material click here.

No comments:

Post a comment

What else are you interested in?

IGNOU IGNOU MAPC Assignments Solved Assignments Clinical Psychology YouTube eBooks Free Videos Google Books PsychoDiagnostics Personality Basics Crash Course Subbable Green Preview Psychology PsychoPathology Book Reviews IGNOU Examinations Social Psychology Cognitive Psychology Statistics Examinations Non-Fiction Personality assessment Research Methods Research Methods in Psychology Advanced Social Psychology Life Span Psychology Movies Personality: Theories and Assessment Statistics in Psychology PsychoTherapeutic Methods Research Design Business Drama PsychoTherapy Question Paper Pattern Free Preview Free Assessments Abnormal Psychology Intelligence Psychological Assessment Research Self-help Yellow Angela Duckworth Grit Personality Development Psychiatry Resources Articles Assessment Brain Carl Rogers Case Studies Experiments Memory PsyConcepts PsyQuotes Psychometric Tests Adolescence Depression Free e-books General Psychology IGNOU Corner IGNOU Super-Notes Learning Mental Disorders Neuro-science Results Self-Development Stress 2016 Abraham Maslow All About Psychology Behavior Modification Big 5 Personality theory Biographies Client-Centered Therapy Communication Diagnosis Early Childhood Introduction Jean Piaget Learning and Memory Mental Health Online Parenting Prejudice Problem Solving Psychology Super-Notes Sex Super-Notes Theories 2010 Adolescents Business Communication Comedy CoronaVirus Counseling Covid-19 Creativity DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Discrimination Education Emotions Forms Grades Intelligence Assessment Language Lawrence Kohlberg Marketing Needs Neuro-Physiology Noam Chomsky Projective Techniques Psychosocial Development Rorschach Test Sigmund Freud Templates Trainings Treatment eLearning 2008 2012 2013 2014 Addiction Alfred Charles Kinsey American Psychiatric Association Applied Psychology Artificial Intelligence Behavioral Economics Biography Book review Causes Child Psychology Cognition Dissociative Disorders Drugs Edward W. Minium Erik Erikson Experimental Research Hallucinations Handbooks Harvard Medical School Hermann Rorschach IPIP Influence Journals Karen Horney Master in Psychology Moral Development Movie Reviews NEO PI-R Neuroticism Oliver Sacks Parkinson's Disease Penguin Person-Centered Therapy Personality Disorders Personality Psychology Persuasion Positive Psychology Practicals Prevalence Psychological Thriller Reference Books Relationships Robert A. Baron Robert Sternberg Robin Williams Romance Sales Self-Actualization Self-Realisation Self-Reports Sleep Social Identity Theory Substance Abuse Technology Teenager Issues Types of Intelligence 16PF 1984 1988 1990 1992 1997 2011 2015 2017 ANOVA Adam Grant Adulthood Ageing Aggression Alfred Adler Algorithms Altruism Alzheimer's Disease Anger Anxiety Attitudes Benjamin Bloom Bipolar Disorders Body Dysmorphic Disorders Borderline Personality disorder Career Carl Gustav Jung Case Study Method Child Development Childhood Classical Conditioning Clifford T. Morgan CliftonStrengths Cognitive Development Cognitive Science Color Conduction Kit Correlation David Wechsler Decision-making Determinants of Personality Disorders Dissociative identity disorder Dreams Dyscalculia Edward Zwick Emotional Experience Encyclopedias Ethical Issues Evolutionary Psychology Extraversion Eyes Factor Analysis Family Environment Gallup Group Formation Guidance Harper Business Hippocampus Humanistic Theory Humans Hypothesis Implicit Association Test India Information Processing Inkblot Techniques Interview Method Jake Gyllenhaal Jane Elliott Jesus and Mary college John Schopler Kindle store Language Development Level of Significance Lifespan Development Loss Marks Mathematicians Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Motivation Motivational Multiple Personality Disorder Negative Reinforcement Neo-Freudians Neuron Neuropsychological Assessment Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Operant Conditioning Pan Macmillan Pandemic Paranoia Paranoid Schizophrenia Parenting Styles Perception Positive Reinforcement Presentations Prognosis Propaganda Prototypes Psychoanalysis Psychological Disorders Psychological Thrillers Psychologists Psychopath Quasi-Experiments Racism Rationality Reevaluation Research Process Richard A. King Robert B. Cialdini Schemas Schizophrenia ScienceAlert.com Self Help Books Self-Concept Self-Esteem Sensation Sexual Orientation Social Conflicts Social Influence Social Media Solomon Asch Specific Learning Disabilities Speech-Sound disorders Stanley Milgram Stereotyping StrengthsFinder StrengthsQuest Suicide Survey Research Symptoms Synopsis The Random House Group The Self Thematic Apperception Test Therapy Thinking Tips Traits Tricks Type I error Types Vision Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Weight 1946 1953 1975 1996 1998 2001 2002 2004 2006 2007 2018 AIDS Accommodation Actress Admin Admission Admit cards Adrian Schiller Adulthood Development Aitana Sánchez-Gijón Alan Turing Albert Bandura Alec Baldwin Alicia Vikander Allen L. Edwards Alonzo Brown Altered States Amazon Amber Heard Amblin Partners Amnesia Amy S. Weber Analyses Anatomy Andrew Sims Andy Puddicombe Angela Robinson Angelina Jolie Animal Therapy Animals Anna Boden Anna Freud Anna Rosling Ronnlund Anne Hathaway Anne MacRae Anorexia Antena 3 Televisión Anti-Semitism Antisocial Personality Disorder Apperception Applied Behavior Analysis Arnold Lazarus Art Art Therapy Article Artists Asperger Syndrome Assessments for Children Assimilation Associative Learning Attachment Attachment Theory Attachment based interventions Authoritarian Parenting Authoritative Parenting Autism Spectrum Disorders Automatic Mimicry Autonomic Nervous System Availability Heuristic Awakenings Awareness BAPC BBC.com BRIEF-P Babbling Balance Theory Barbara Minto Barnes and Noble Barry H. Cohen Behavior Therapy Behavioral Sciences Behaviorist Theory Belief Perseverance Beliefs Bella Heathcote Ben Affleck Ben Whishaw Benedict Cumberbatch Benjamin J. Sadock Bernardo J. Carducci Bhatia's Battery of Intelligence Tests Bias Big Data Binge-Eating Disorder Biographical Biological school Biomedical Therapies Bloomsbury Blue Wolf Productions Bobby Fischer Bobo Doll Experiment Bollywood Boxspring Entertainment Brad Anderson Brain Games Brain-washing Bridget Somekh Bruce M. King Bulimia Bullying Bystander Effect CBT Calculator Cancer Carl Lange Carol S. Dweck Carrie-Anne Moss Casey D. Cobb Cass R. Sunstein Cathy Lewin Cats Causal-Comparative Research Cell.com Central Nervous System Cerebral Palsy Certificate Change Blindness Charles Spielberger Chess Chi-square Child Abuse Childhood Depression Chris Anderson Christian Bale Christy Engle Chronic Stress Clas Classics Clinical Psychiatry Coaching Cognitive Behavior Therapy Cognitive Biases Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Learning Cognitive Therapy Columbia Pictures Communication Analysis Comorbidity Compliance Computer Scientist Concentration Camp Conception Concepts Conceptual Driven Tests Conceptual Thinking Conduct Disorder Conflict Resolution Conformity Conscientiousness Consciousness Control Groups Corbett H. Thigpen Counter-Conditioning Course Crime Cross-sectional Studies Cryptanalyst Crystalline Intelligence Cueing Cultural Blocks Curiosity Dale Carnegie Dan Ariely Dance Movement Therapy Daniel Goleman Daniel Kahneman Daniel L. Segal Daniel Levinson Daniel London Daryl J. Bem Darío Grandinetti Data Data Sources Date-Sheet David C. S. Richard David Elkind David Epston David H. Barlow David Rock David Statt Dean R. Brooks Decision Making Deep Brain Stimulation Deep Learning Deep Processing Deepika Padukone Defense Mechanisms Degree Degree of freedom Deindividuation Delhi Delusional Disorder Delusional Psychosis Delusions Dementia Dependence Depersonalisation Disorder Depressants Depressive Disorders Depth Perception Descriptive Assessment Deseo Development Dexter Gordon Diana Baumrind Diathesis Stress Model Dictionaries Dieting Differential Diagnosis Direct Observation Discourse Analysis Distress Donn R. Byrne Dopamine DreamWorks Drew Barrymore Drive Reduction Theory Drug Therapies Dual Process Theory Dual Processing Dual Treatment Model Dysarthria Dysgraphia Dyslexia Dystopia EPPS Eating Disorders Ed Harris Eddie Redmayne Edward S. Herman Edward's Personal Preference Schedule Ego-Dystonic Disorders Ego-Syntonic Disorders Egocentrism El ElectroConvulsive Therapy Elizabeth B. Hurlock Elizabeth Cara Ellis Paul Torrance Elsevier Emily Blunt Emma Roberts Emma Watson Emotional Distress Emotional Intelligence Encephalitis Lethargica Encoding Memory Endocrine System Endorphins Entrepreneurship Environmental Influences Erotomanic Ethnography Eugenics Ex-Post-Facto Research Exceptional Children Exchange Theory Existential Psychology Existential Therapy Existential-Humanist Therapy Experimental Groups Explicit Effortful Processing Expression Extroversion Eyewitness Accounts Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Ezra Miller Facial Expressions Factorial Design Family Environment Scale Family Therapy Fantasy Films Farrar Fay Short Femi Oyebode Fiction Field Research Fixation Flower Films Fluid Intelligence Followership Food Forensic Psychology Forgetting Form Perception Frodo Baggins Frustration-Aggression Theory Fundamental Attribution Error G-factor Gabriel Macht Gallup Press Gaylord Films Gender Identity Generalised Anxiety Disorder Gerald Corey Gerald Goldstein Glenn E. Meyer Global Development Good Machine Google Play Gopa Bhardwaj Gordon Allport Gordon Bear Grammar Grandiose Gregor Jordan Grounded Theory Group Dynamics Group Therapy GroupThink Growth and Development Gus Van Sant H. Peter Laqueur Habit Formation Haley Bennett Hall Tickets Hallucinogens Hank Azaria Hans J. Eysenck Hans Rosling Happiness Harold I. Kaplan Harper Perennial HarperCollins HarperOne Harvard Business Review Headline Publishing Group Health Healthy Living Hearing Heather E. P. Cattell Henri Tajfel Henry Murray Herman Ebbinghaus Hervey M. Cleckley Heuristics Histogram History of Psychology Hodder & Stoughton Hollywood Holmes Osborne Homan's Theory Homosexuality Hormones Howard Gardner Human Resources Human Sexual Response Cycle Hunger Hunter King Hunter Parrish Hypnosis Hypothesis Formulation ICD IGNOU BAPC IGNOU Question Papers IQ IQ levels Identity Identity Development Illusions Implicit Automatic Processing Implicit Memory Impression formation Impulsivity In-Group Bias Infants Ingroup-Outgroup Phenomenon Innovation Insight Inter-personal attraction Interface Interference Internship Interpersonal Effectiveness Interpersonal Incidents Interpersonal Therapy Interrogation Introspective Report Introversion Irving B. Weiner Jack Nicholson James M. Schuerger James Marcia Japanese Multiplication Jason Silva Javier Cámara Jealous Jeffry A. Simpson Jena Malone Jennifer Connelly Jennifer Jason Leigh Jerome Singer Jesse Eisenberg Jill Walker Rettberg Jimmy Bennett John Carlyle Raven John Forbes Nash Jr. John R. Weisz John Sharian John W. Santrock Johnny Simmons Jon W. Martin Josh Gad Judy Greer Julianne Moore Julie Kavner Justin Theroux Kalki Koechlin Karl Pearson Kate Bosworth Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Keir Gilchrist Keira Knightley Keith Tudor Killer Films Kinesthetic Sense Kittens Knowledge Kobo Kurt Pawlik Laboratory Experiments Language Acquisition Late Adulthood Laura E. Berk Law Leadership Leonor Watling Lev S. Vygotsky Lexi Ainsworth Liev Schreiber Life Life Coaching LifeStyle Liz Wiseman Logan Lerman Logic Logotherapy Long Term Storage Louis Leon Thurstone Louise Fletcher Love Luke Evans Lutzus-Brown MFGT MIT MMPI Magic Mushrooms Mann-Whitney U Test Mark Boyd Mark H. Durand Mark J. Hilsenroth Mark Manson Mark R. Rosenzweig Martin Lindstrom Mary Ainsworth Mary McDonnell Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Mass-Communications Maths Matt Damon Mean Means-Ends analysis Measures of Central Tendency Media Median Medicine Meditation Melanie Lynskey Mental Health Day Mental Illness Mental Institution Mental Sets Mia Wasikowska Mic Michael Berryman Michael R. Liebowitz Michael Sheen Michael White Michel Hersen Middle Adulthood Middle Childhood Mike Worrall Milos Forman Mindfulness Minnie Driver Minto International Inc. Mirror Neurons Misinformation Effect Mismatched Validity Mobile Addiction Mobile Users Mode Monica Potter Mood Mood Disorders Morality Morphemes Motor Development Mr. Mudd Multimodal Therapy Multiple Family Group Therapy Muriel Deutsch Lezak Mwako Cumbuka NPR.org Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narrative Therapy National Geographic Channel Naturalistic Observation Negative Punishment Neural Activity Models Neural networks Neuro-Imaging Neuro-Psychology Neuro-marketing Neurological Issues Neuroplasticity Neuropsychology Neurotransmitters News Nicholas Braun Nir Eyal Noah Taylor Noble Prize Winner Noble Prize Winners Nook Normal Distribution Normal Probability Curve Nyla R. Branscombe OCD Obedience Observational Learning Ola Rosling Olfactory Oliver Platt Online Tests OpenPsychometrics Opposite Field Pictures Optimal Arousal Theory Organisational Behaviour Organisations Organizational Behavior Orion Publishing Group Otto Gross PASS theory PTSD Palgrave Macmillan Pandora Cinema Panic Disorder Pantheon Books Parkes/Lasker Productions Patrick Swayze Paul Marshall Paul Rudd Paul Wilkins Paula Hawkins Pedro Almodóvar Peer Group Relationship Penguin RandomHouse UK Penny Marshall Perceptual Memory Tests Perceptual Set Persecutory Person Perception Personality Theories Personification Peter Brocco Peter Sarsgaard Phil Thomas Philip Bard Phobias Phonemes Pioneers Pip Torrens Point estimate Point-Biserial correlation Politics Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-Partum Psychosis Pre-Natal Development Predictive Assessment Pretty Pictures Primates Priming Pro-Social behaviour Pro-social behavior Procedural Memory Tests Product Design Product-Moment correlation Productive Language Projects Propinquity Theory Psilocybin Psychiatrist Psycho-Educational batteries PsychoEducation PsychoLinguistics PsychoSocial Therapy PsychoTech PsychoTherapy Integration Psychoactive Substances Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic Therapy Psychodrama Psychodynamic Theory Psychodynamic Therapy Psychology Clinics Psychosocial Occupational Therapy Psychoticism Public Speaking Qualitative Research Quasi-Experimental design Questionnaires Quotes R. Brooke Lea R. Chris Fraley Rachana Sharma Random House Business Books Raven's Matrices Raven's Progressive Matrices ReVision Pictures Reading Realistic Conflict Theory Rebecca Ferguson Rebecca Hall Receptive Language Reciprocity Norm Reformatory Paranoia Regression Reliability Reliance Entertainment Repititive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Research Biases Retrieval Cues Retroactive Inhibition Revathy Richard Ayoade Richard Glatzer Richard H. Thaler Richard Kelly Richard M. Ryckman Richard W. Robins Robeer's Cave Experiment Robert C. Clarke Robert Cialdini Robert De Niro Robert F. Krueger Robert Goodman Robert Sapolsky Robert Zajonc Rocio Fernandez-Ballesteros Roger L. Greene Romantic Drama Rosalind Wiseman Rosario Flores Russell Crowe Ryan Fleck S. K. Mangal SOI Sabina Spielrein Sampling Sampling Techniques Samuel L. Jackson Satiation Saundra K. Ciccarelli Sayani Gupta Scaffolding Theory Scatman Crothers Scatter Plot Schizoid Personality Disorder Scientists Selective Attention Selective Inattention Self-Control Self-Efficacy Self-Monitoring Self-Perception Self-Perception Theory Self-Reference Effect Semantic Web Sensory Thresholds Sentence Completion Test Sex Hormones Sexologists Sexology Shallow Processing Shane McRae Sherlock Holmes Shonali Bose Short-Term Therapy Short-Term memory Simon & Schuster Paperbacks Sleep Deprivation Sleeping Sickness Smartphones Snowball Sampling Social Anxiety Social Anxiety Scale Social Exchange Theory Social Facilitation Social Intelligence Social Learning Social Loafing Social Relationships Social Traps Social-Cognitive Personality Sociosexual Orientation Inventory Sociosexuality Solution-Focused Therapy Somatic South Asian Edition Span of Attention Spatial Intelligence Sports Spouse Stage 6 Films Stages Stages of Morality Stages of Sleep Stanford Stanford Prison Experiment Stanley Schachter State Approaches Stellan Skarsgård Stephanie Cotton Stephen Chbosky Stephen P. Robbins Stephen Root Stephen Scott Steve de Shazer Steven K. Huprich Steven W. Gangestad Stimulants Stories Storing Memory Storytelling Straus and Giroux (FSG) Strengths StrengthsFinder 2.0 Stress Management Structure of Brain Study Material Styles of Attachment Success Sue R. Beers Summit Entertainment Super Hero(ine) Susan Cain Susanna Kaysen Sybil Synapses T Anbu TAT TAT Blank TV shows Tactile Taste Tate Taylor Team work Technical Neutrality Ted Talks Terminal Illnesses Testing Bias The Royal Society Publishing The Three Faces of Eve Theodore Coladarci Thriller Time-lag method Tobey Maguire Tom Hooper Tom Rath Tom Shadyac Tools and techniques Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Transference Trauma Universal Pictures University of Pennsylvania Validity Variables Variance Vermilion London Vestibular Sense Viktor E. Frankl Viola Davis Virginia A. Sadock Virginia E. Johnson Visual Cues Vook WAIS WH Allen WISC Wallace Shawn Walter Cannon War Heroes Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Weight-loss Wilcoxon Test William H. Masters William James Winona Ryder Working Title Films Workshops World Wars Yasmin Paige Young Adulthood Zach Galifianakis Zoë Kravitz Zygote iTunes