PsyQuotes

eBooks

Videos


Q3. What are the goals of client centered therapy? Discuss the process adopted in client centered therapy.


Client-centered therapy differs from other forms of therapy because client-centered therapy does not focus on therapeutic techniques. What's most important in client-centered therapy is the quality of the relationship between the therapist and the client.

Client-centered therapy was not intended for a specific age group or subpopulation, but has been used to treat a broad range of people. It has been applied for use with people suffering from depression, anxiety, alcohol disorders, cognitive dysfunction, schizophrenia, and personality disorders.


Goals of Client-centered therapy

Basic goals for the client: 
Considering this is a non-directive technique the therapist does not prescribe the goals. Instead the client chooses his own goals, and also bears the responsibility of the treatment process. However there are some basic goals that are there – the four basic goals a person will achieve in successful person-centered therapy. They will become:

  1. open to experience - more positive and comfortable relationships with others; and an increased capacity to experience and express feelings at the moment they occur.
  2. learn to trust themselves and have increased self-esteem: thus, have lower levels of defensiveness, guilt, and insecurity.
  3. develop an internal evaluation of themselves: include closer agreement between the client's idealized and actual selves; better self-understanding 
  4. have a willingness to continue growing.


Goal for the therapist: 
A major goal is to provide a climate of safety and trust in the therapeutic setting so that the client, by using the therapeutic relationship for self-exploration, can become aware of blocks to growth. The client tends to move toward more openness, greater self-trust, more willingness to evolve as opposed to being a fixed product, and a tendency to live by internal standards as opposed to taking external cues for what he or she should become.

The aim of therapy is not merely to solve problems but to assist in the growth process, which will enable the client to better cope with present and future problems. Person-centered therapists are in agreement on the matter of not setting goals for what clients need to change, yet they differ on the matter of how to best help clients achieve their own goals.

Process of client-centered therapy

The three phases are:
  1. Catharsis: Catharsis involves a gradual and more complete expression of emotionalized attitudes. The conversation goes from superficial problems and attitudes to deeper problems and attitudes. This process of exploration gradually unearths relevant attitudes which have been denied to consciousness.
  2. Insight: involves more adequate facing of reality as it exists within the self, as well as external reality; that it involves the relating of problems to each other, the perception of patterns of behavior; that it involves the acceptance of hitherto denied elements of the self, and a reformulating of the self-concept; and that it involves the making of new plans.
  3. Positive choice and action: In the final phase, the choice of new ways of behaving will be in conformity with the newly organized concept of the self; that first steps in putting these plans into action will be small but symbolic; that the individual will feel only a minimum degree of confidence that he can put his plans into effect, that later steps implement more and more completely the new concept of self, and that this process continues beyond the conclusion of the therapeutic interviews.

Roger further described the continua of change in a client comprising of the following seven stages:
  1. Loosening of feelings
  2. Change in the manner of experiencing: therapists have a modest amount of success working with clients at this stage
  3. Shift from incongruence to Congruence: Therapy typically begins at this stage
  4. Change in the manner and extent of communication
  5. Loosening of the cognitive maps of experience
  6. Change in the individual’s relationship to his problems: the moments of immediate, full accepted experiencing are in some sense almost irreversible
  7. Change in the manner of relating

There is a stage beyond therapy in which the client is not much in need of the therapist’s help – ‘transference cure’.

Rogers believed that the most important factor in successful therapy was not the therapist's skill or training, but rather his or her attitude. Three interrelated attitudes on the part of the therapist are central to the success of person-centered therapy: 
  1. Congruence refers to the therapist's openness and genuineness—the willingness to relate to clients without hiding behind a professional facade. Therapists who function in this way have all their feelings available to them in therapy sessions and may share significant emotional reactions with their clients. 
  2. Unconditional positive regard means that the therapist accepts the client totally for who he or she is without evaluating or censoring, and without disapproving of particular feelings, actions, or characteristics. The therapist communicates this attitude to the client by a willingness to listen without interrupting, judging, or giving advice. 
  3. The third necessary component of a therapist's attitude is empathy ("accurate empathetic understanding"). The therapist tries to appreciate the client's situation from the client's point of view, showing an emotional understanding of and sensitivity to the client's feelings throughout the therapy session. 

According to Rogers, when these three attitudes (congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy) are conveyed by a therapist, clients can freely express themselves without having to worry about what the therapist thinks of them. The therapist merely facilitates self-actualization by providing a climate in which clients can freely engage in focused, in-depth self-exploration. 

This list has since been expanded to:
- Unconditional positive regard (discussed above)
- Empathetic understanding (discussed above)
- Genuineness and congruence (discussed above)
- Transparency: All feelings about the client are expressed, even if negative.
- Self-disclosure: Degree to which therapists may express and disclose themselves
- Concreteness: Focusing discussion on specific, events, thoughts and feelings that matter
- Cultural awareness: therapist should be cognizant of cultural differences and their impact

* * *

Person-centered therapy is based on an organismic psychology which describes the innate and unforced tendency of human beings, given a conducive environment, to actualize their potential. The major goal for the therapist is to provide a climate of safety and trust so that the client is able to achieve the four basic goals of becoming – open to experience, learning to trust themselves and have increased self-esteem, develop an internal evaluation of themselves, and have a willingness to continue growing. The process of therapy involves three phases of catharsis, insight and positive choice and action.

Sources:

If you found this useful, do remember to like Psychology Learners on Facebook and subscribe by email.




In a hurry? Download the full solved IGNOU assignments from the links below>>

MPC001: Cognitive Psychology
MPC002: LifeSpan Psychology
MPC003: Personality: Theories and Assessment
MPC004: Advanced Social Psychology
MPC005: Research Methods in Psychology
MPC006: Statistics in Psychology
MPCE011: Psychopathology (not uploaded yet)
MPCE012: Psychodiagnostics (not uploaded yet)
MPCE013: Psychotherapeutic Methods (not uploaded yet)
MPCE021: Counselling Psychology (not uploaded yet)
MPCE022: Assessment in Counselling and Guidance (not uploaded yet)
MPCE023: Interventions in Counselling (not uploaded yet)
MPCE031: Organisational Behaviour (not uploaded yet)
MPCE032: Human Resource Development (not uploaded yet)
MPCE033: Organisational Development (not uploaded yet)

For 'SuperNotes' click here.

For Free eBook previews click here.

For other IGNOU MAPC material click here.

For IGNOU related information and material click here.

No comments:

Post a Comment

What else are you interested in?

IGNOU IGNOU MAPC Assignments Solved Assignments Clinical Psychology YouTube eBooks Videos Free Google Books PsychoDiagnostics Basics Crash Course Personality Subbable Green Preview Psychology Book Reviews PsychoPathology Social Psychology Cognitive Psychology Non-Fiction Personality assessment Statistics Research Methods IGNOU Examinations Research Methods in Psychology Advanced Social Psychology Life Span Psychology Movies Personality: Theories and Assessment PsychoTherapeutic Methods Statistics in Psychology Examinations Research Design Business PsychoTherapy Drama Free Preview Free Assessments Abnormal Psychology Intelligence Psychological Assessment Self-help Question Paper Pattern Angela Duckworth Grit Yellow Articles Brain Carl Rogers Case Studies Experiments Memory PsyConcepts PsyQuotes Psychiatry Psychometric Tests Research Depression Free e-books General Psychology Learning Mental Disorders Neuro-science Personality Development Results Self-Development 2016 Abraham Maslow Adolescence Assessment Behavior Modification Big 5 Personality theory Biographies Client-Centered Therapy Communication Diagnosis Early Childhood Introduction Jean Piaget Parenting Prejudice Problem Solving Theories 2010 Adolescents Business Communication Comedy Counseling Creativity DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Discrimination Education Emotions Forms Grades Intelligence Assessment Language Lawrence Kohlberg Learning and Memory Marketing Needs Neuro-Physiology Noam Chomsky Projective Techniques Psychosocial Development Resources Rorschach Test Sex Sigmund Freud Templates Treatment 2008 2012 2013 2014 Alfred Charles Kinsey Applied Psychology Artificial Intelligence Behavioral Economics Book review Causes Child Psychology Cognition Dissociative Disorders Drugs Edward W. Minium Erik Erikson Experimental Research Hallucinations Handbooks Hermann Rorschach IGNOU Super-Notes IPIP Influence Journals Karen Horney Master in Psychology Mental Health Moral Development NEO PI-R Neuroticism Oliver Sacks Parkinson's Disease Penguin Person-Centered Therapy Personality Disorders Personality Psychology Persuasion Positive Psychology Practicals Prevalence Psychological Thriller Reference Books Relationships Robert A. Baron Robert Sternberg Robin Williams Romance Sales Self-Actualization Self-Realisation Self-Reports Sleep Social Identity Theory Substance Abuse Technology Types of Intelligence 16PF 1984 1988 1990 1992 1997 2011 2015 2017 ANOVA Adam Grant Addiction Adulthood Ageing Aggression Alfred Adler Algorithms All About Psychology Altruism Alzheimer's Disease American Psychiatric Association Anger Anxiety Attitudes Benjamin Bloom Biography Bipolar Disorders Body Dysmorphic Disorders Borderline Personality disorder Career Carl Gustav Jung Case Study Method Child Development Childhood Classical Conditioning Clifford T. Morgan CliftonStrengths Cognitive Development Cognitive Science Color Conduction Kit Correlation David Wechsler Decision-making Disorders Dissociative identity disorder Dreams Dyscalculia Emotional Experience Encyclopedias Evolutionary Psychology Extraversion Eyes Factor Analysis Family Environment Gallup Group Formation Guidance Harper Business Hippocampus Humanistic Theory Humans Hypothesis Implicit Association Test India Information Processing Inkblot Techniques Interview Method Jake Gyllenhaal Jane Elliott Jesus and Mary college John Schopler Kindle store Language Development Level of Significance Lifespan Development Loss Marks Mathematicians Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi Motivation Motivational Movie Reviews Multiple Personality Disorder Negative Reinforcement Neo-Freudians Neuron Neuropsychological Assessment Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Operant Conditioning Pan Macmillan Parenting Styles Perception Positive Reinforcement Presentations Prognosis Propaganda Prototypes Psychoanalysis Psychological Disorders Psychological Thrillers Psychologists Psychology Super-Notes Psychopath Quasi-Experiments Racism Rationality Reevaluation Richard A. King Robert B. Cialdini Schemas Schizophrenia ScienceAlert.com Self Help Books Self-Concept Self-Esteem Sensation Social Conflicts Social Influence Solomon Asch Specific Learning Disabilities Speech-Sound disorders Stanley Milgram Stereotyping StrengthsFinder StrengthsQuest Stress Suicide Super-Notes Survey Research Symptoms Synopsis Teenager Issues The Random House Group The Self Thematic Apperception Test Therapy Thinking Tips Tricks Type I error Vision Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Weight 1946 1953 1975 1996 1998 2001 2002 2004 2006 2007 2018 AIDS Accommodation Actress Admin Admission Admit cards Adrian Schiller Adulthood Development Aitana Sánchez-Gijón Alan Turing Albert Bandura Alec Baldwin Alicia Vikander Allen L. Edwards Alonzo Brown Altered States Amazon Amber Heard Amblin Partners Amnesia Amy S. Weber Anatomy Andrew Sims Andy Puddicombe Angela Robinson Angelina Jolie Animal Therapy Animals Anna Boden Anna Freud Anna Rosling Ronnlund Anne Hathaway Anne MacRae Anorexia Antena 3 Televisión Anti-Semitism Antisocial Personality Disorder Apperception Applied Behavior Analysis Arnold Lazarus Art Art Therapy Article Artists Asperger Syndrome Assessments for Children Assimilation Associative Learning Attachment Attachment Theory Attachment based interventions Authoritarian Parenting Authoritative Parenting Autism Spectrum Disorders Automatic Mimicry Autonomic Nervous System Availability Heuristic Awakenings Awareness BAPC BBC.com BRIEF-P Babbling Balance Theory Barbara Minto Barnes and Noble Barry H. Cohen Behavior Therapy Behavioral Sciences Behaviorist Theory Belief Perseverance Beliefs Bella Heathcote Ben Affleck Ben Whishaw Benedict Cumberbatch Benjamin J. Sadock Bernardo J. Carducci Bhatia's Battery of Intelligence Tests Bias Big Data Binge-Eating Disorder Biographical Biological school Biomedical Therapies Bloomsbury Blue Wolf Productions Bobo Doll Experiment Bollywood Boxspring Entertainment Brad Anderson Brain Games Brain-washing Bridget Somekh Bruce M. King Bulimia Bullying Bystander Effect CBT Calculator Cancer Carl Lange Carol S. Dweck Carrie-Anne Moss Casey D. Cobb Cass R. Sunstein Cathy Lewin Cats Causal-Comparative Research Cell.com Central Nervous System Certificate Change Blindness Charles Spielberger Chi-square Child Abuse Childhood Depression Chris Anderson Christian Bale Christy Engle Chronic Stress Clas Classics Clinical Psychiatry Coaching Cognitive Behavior Therapy Cognitive Biases Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Learning Cognitive Therapy Columbia Pictures Communication Analysis Comorbidity Compliance Computer Scientist Concentration Camp Conception Concepts Conceptual Driven Tests Conceptual Thinking Conduct Disorder Conflict Resolution Conformity Conscientiousness Consciousness Control Groups Corbett H. Thigpen Counter-Conditioning Course Crime Cross-sectional Studies Cryptanalyst Crystalline Intelligence Cueing Cultural Blocks Curiosity Dale Carnegie Dan Ariely Dance Movement Therapy Daniel Goleman Daniel Kahneman Daniel L. Segal Daniel Levinson Daniel London Daryl J. Bem Darío Grandinetti Data Data Sources Date-Sheet David C. S. Richard David Elkind David Epston David H. Barlow David Rock David Statt Dean R. Brooks Decision Making Deep Brain Stimulation Deep Learning Deep Processing Deepika Padukone Defense Mechanisms Degree Degree of freedom Deindividuation Delhi Delusional Disorder Delusions Dementia Dependence Depersonalisation Disorder Depressants Depressive Disorders Depth Perception Descriptive Assessment Deseo Development Dexter Gordon Diana Baumrind Diathesis Stress Model Dictionaries Dieting Differential Diagnosis Direct Observation Discourse Analysis Donn R. Byrne Dopamine DreamWorks Drew Barrymore Drive Reduction Theory Drug Therapies Dual Process Theory Dual Processing Dual Treatment Model Dysarthria Dysgraphia Dyslexia Dystopia EPPS Eating Disorders Ed Harris Eddie Redmayne Edward S. Herman Edward Zwick Edward's Personal Preference Schedule Ego-Dystonic Disorders Ego-Syntonic Disorders Egocentrism El ElectroConvulsive Therapy Elizabeth B. Hurlock Elizabeth Cara Ellis Paul Torrance Elsevier Emily Blunt Emma Roberts Emma Watson Emotional Intelligence Encephalitis Lethargica Encoding Memory Endocrine System Endorphins Entrepreneurship Environmental Influences Erotomanic Ethnography Eugenics Ex-Post-Facto Research Exceptional Children Exchange Theory Existential Psychology Existential Therapy Existential-Humanist Therapy Experimental Groups Explicit Effortful Processing Expression Extroversion Eyewitness Accounts Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Ezra Miller Facial Expressions Factorial Design Family Environment Scale Family Therapy Fantasy Films Farrar Fay Short Femi Oyebode Fiction Field Research Fixation Flower Films Fluid Intelligence Followership Food Forensic Psychology Forgetting Form Perception Frodo Baggins Frustration-Aggression Theory Fundamental Attribution Error G-factor Gabriel Macht Gallup Press Gaylord Films Gender Identity Generalised Anxiety Disorder Gerald Corey Gerald Goldstein Glenn E. Meyer Global Development Good Machine Google Play Gopa Bhardwaj Gordon Allport Gordon Bear Grammar Grandiose Gregor Jordan Grounded Theory Group Dynamics Group Therapy GroupThink Growth and Development Gus Van Sant H. Peter Laqueur Habit Formation Haley Bennett Hall Tickets Hallucinogens Hank Azaria Hans J. Eysenck Hans Rosling Happiness Harold I. Kaplan Harper Perennial HarperCollins HarperOne Harvard Business Review Headline Publishing Group Health Healthy Living Hearing Heather E. P. Cattell Henri Tajfel Henry Murray Herman Ebbinghaus Hervey M. Cleckley Heuristics Histogram History of Psychology Hodder & Stoughton Hollywood Holmes Osborne Homan's Theory Homosexuality Hormones Howard Gardner Human Resources Human Sexual Response Cycle Hunger Hunter King Hunter Parrish Hypnosis Hypothesis Formulation ICD IGNOU BAPC IGNOU Question Papers IQ IQ levels Identity Identity Development Illusions Implicit Automatic Processing Implicit Memory Impression formation Impulsivity In-Group Bias Infants Ingroup-Outgroup Phenomenon Innovation Insight Inter-personal attraction Interface Interference Internship Interpersonal Effectiveness Interpersonal Incidents Interpersonal Therapy Interrogation Introspective Report Introversion Irving B. Weiner Jack Nicholson James M. Schuerger James Marcia Japanese Multiplication Jason Silva Javier Cámara Jealous Jeffry A. Simpson Jena Malone Jennifer Connelly Jennifer Jason Leigh Jerome Singer Jesse Eisenberg Jill Walker Rettberg Jimmy Bennett John Carlyle Raven John Forbes Nash Jr. John R. Weisz John Sharian John W. Santrock Johnny Simmons Jon W. Martin Josh Gad Judy Greer Julianne Moore Julie Kavner Justin Theroux Kalki Koechlin Karl Pearson Kate Bosworth Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Keir Gilchrist Keira Knightley Keith Tudor Killer Films Kinesthetic Sense Kittens Knowledge Kobo Kurt Pawlik Laboratory Experiments Language Acquisition Late Adulthood Laura E. Berk Law Leadership Leonor Watling Lev S. Vygotsky Lexi Ainsworth Life Life Coaching LifeStyle Liz Wiseman Logan Lerman Logic Logotherapy Long Term Storage Louis Leon Thurstone Louise Fletcher Love Luke Evans Lutzus-Brown MFGT MIT MMPI Magic Mushrooms Mann-Whitney U Test Mark Boyd Mark H. Durand Mark J. Hilsenroth Mark Manson Mark R. Rosenzweig Martin Lindstrom Mary Ainsworth Mary McDonnell Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Mass-Communications Maths Matt Damon Mean Means-Ends analysis Measures of Central Tendency Media Median Medicine Meditation Melanie Lynskey Mental Health Day Mental Illness Mental Institution Mental Sets Mia Wasikowska Mic Michael Berryman Michael R. Liebowitz Michael Sheen Michael White Michel Hersen Middle Adulthood Middle Childhood Mike Worrall Milos Forman Mindfulness Minnie Driver Minto International Inc. Mirror Neurons Misinformation Effect Mismatched Validity Mode Monica Potter Mood Mood Disorders Morality Morphemes Motor Development Mr. Mudd Multimodal Therapy Multiple Family Group Therapy Muriel Deutsch Lezak Mwako Cumbuka NPR.org Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narrative Therapy National Geographic Channel Naturalistic Observation Negative Punishment Neural Activity Models Neural networks Neuro-Imaging Neuro-Psychology Neuro-marketing Neuroplasticity Neuropsychology Neurotransmitters News Nicholas Braun Nir Eyal Noah Taylor Noble Prize Winner Noble Prize Winners Nook Normal Distribution Normal Probability Curve Nyla R. Branscombe OCD Obedience Observational Learning Ola Rosling Olfactory Oliver Platt Online Online Tests OpenPsychometrics Opposite Field Pictures Optimal Arousal Theory Organisational Behaviour Organisations Organizational Behavior Orion Publishing Group Otto Gross PASS theory PTSD Palgrave Macmillan Pandora Cinema Panic Disorder Pantheon Books Paranoia Paranoid Schizophrenia Parkes/Lasker Productions Patrick Swayze Paul Rudd Paul Wilkins Paula Hawkins Pedro Almodóvar Peer Group Relationship Penguin RandomHouse UK Penny Marshall Perceptual Memory Tests Perceptual Set Persecutory Person Perception Personification Peter Brocco Phil Thomas Philip Bard Phobias Phonemes Pioneers Pip Torrens Point estimate Point-Biserial correlation Politics Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-Partum Psychosis Pre-Natal Development Predictive Assessment Pretty Pictures Primates Priming Pro-Social behaviour Pro-social behavior Procedural Memory Tests Product Design Product-Moment correlation Productive Language Projects Propinquity Theory Psilocybin Psychiatrist Psycho-Educational batteries PsychoEducation PsychoLinguistics PsychoSocial Therapy PsychoTech PsychoTherapy Integration Psychoactive Substances Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic Therapy Psychodrama Psychodynamic Theory Psychodynamic Therapy Psychology Clinics Psychosocial Occupational Therapy Psychoticism Public Speaking Qualitative Research Quasi-Experimental design Questionnaires Quotes R. Brooke Lea R. Chris Fraley Rachana Sharma Random House Business Books Raven's Matrices Raven's Progressive Matrices ReVision Pictures Reading Realistic Conflict Theory Rebecca Ferguson Rebecca Hall Receptive Language Reciprocity Norm Reformatory Paranoia Regression Reliability Reliance Entertainment Repititive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Research Biases Research Process Retrieval Cues Retroactive Inhibition Revathy Richard Ayoade Richard Glatzer Richard H. Thaler Richard Kelly Richard M. Ryckman Richard W. Robins Robeer's Cave Experiment Robert C. Clarke Robert Cialdini Robert De Niro Robert F. Krueger Robert Goodman Robert Sapolsky Robert Zajonc Rocio Fernandez-Ballesteros Roger L. Greene Romantic Drama Rosalind Wiseman Rosario Flores Russell Crowe Ryan Fleck S. K. Mangal SOI Sabina Spielrein Sampling Sampling Techniques Samuel L. Jackson Satiation Saundra K. Ciccarelli Sayani Gupta Scaffolding Theory Scatman Crothers Scatter Plot Schizoid Personality Disorder Scientists Selective Attention Selective Inattention Self-Control Self-Efficacy Self-Monitoring Self-Perception Self-Perception Theory Self-Reference Effect Semantic Web Sensory Thresholds Sentence Completion Test Sex Hormones Sexologists Sexology Sexual Orientation Shallow Processing Shane McRae Sherlock Holmes Shonali Bose Short-Term Therapy Short-Term memory Simon & Schuster Paperbacks Sleep Deprivation Sleeping Sickness Snowball Sampling Social Anxiety Social Anxiety Scale Social Exchange Theory Social Facilitation Social Intelligence Social Learning Social Loafing Social Media Social Traps Social-Cognitive Personality Sociosexual Orientation Inventory Sociosexuality Solution-Focused Therapy Somatic South Asian Edition Span of Attention Spatial Intelligence Spouse Stage 6 Films Stages Stages of Morality Stages of Sleep Stanford Stanford Prison Experiment Stanley Schachter Stellan Skarsgård Stephanie Cotton Stephen Chbosky Stephen P. Robbins Stephen Root Stephen Scott Steve de Shazer Steven K. Huprich Steven W. Gangestad Stimulants Stories Storing Memory Storytelling Straus and Giroux (FSG) Strengths StrengthsFinder 2.0 Stress Management Structure of Brain Study Material Styles of Attachment Success Sue R. Beers Summit Entertainment Super Hero(ine) Susan Cain Susanna Kaysen Sybil Synapses T Anbu TAT TAT Blank TV shows Tactile Taste Tate Taylor Team work Technical Neutrality Ted Talks Terminal Illnesses Testing Bias The Royal Society Publishing The Three Faces of Eve Theodore Coladarci Thriller Time-lag method Tom Hooper Tom Rath Tom Shadyac Tools and techniques Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Traits Transference Trauma Types Universal Pictures University of Pennsylvania Validity Variables Variance Vermilion London Vestibular Sense Viktor E. Frankl Viola Davis Virginia A. Sadock Virginia E. Johnson Visual Cues Vook WAIS WH Allen WISC Wallace Shawn Walter Cannon War Heroes Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Weight-loss Wilcoxon Test William H. Masters William James Winona Ryder Working Title Films Workshops World Wars Yasmin Paige Young Adulthood Zach Galifianakis Zoë Kravitz Zygote iTunes